AP EXAM REVIEW 1750 TO 1900. AGE OF REVOLUTIONS. Industrial Revolution (1700s-1900s). The movement began in 1700s England as production of goods were done as a mass scale using machines first powered by water and later coal. England was a natural choice due to their
Industrial Revolution(1700s-1900s) The movement began in 1700s England as production of goods were done as a mass scale using machines first powered by water and later coal. England was a natural choice due to their large work force, natural resources and navigable waterways. The period is known for new machines (mechanization) such as the flying shuttle and spinning jenny within the textile industry, advances in steam power and quicker ways of making steel called the Bessemer Process. This led to greater transportation, not only on the water but by rail. A movement of this importance would naturally have long-range consequences such as the lowering of prices and the subsequent increase in demand, higher standard of living, the emergence of a new middle class and a large working class, the shift of women from the fields into the home and rapid urbanization which led to the development of tenements and slums. In response to the changes, governments passed laws to protect workers, unions formed to speak for workers and their concerns while philosophers argued at the social ramifications. Adam Smith, in his book The Wealth of Nations, pushed for a laissez-faire approach to the economy while German Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels condemned capitalism and advocated a more socialistic approach.
Why Did Industrialization Begin in England First?
Favorable Conditions in England Wealth from Age of Discovery – joint stock companies, banking, merchants Ample available land Lots of water sources for power and transportation Abundant coal Cheap labor supply Liberal pro-business and stable government
The Enclosure Movement
Metals, Woolens, & Canals
Coalfields & Industrial Areas
Coal Mining in Britain:1800-1914
Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”
Richard Arkwright:“Pioneer of the Factory System” The “Water Frame”
Factory System It refers to the methods by which European countries grew more industrialized, through the mass production of increasingly cheaper goods within the confines of factories. Early conditions of factories were pretty dangerous and workers were not compensated fairly or adequately. Government legislation and labor unions would eventually work to protect and extend the rights of workers. Normally, factories were centrally located in urban areas, near sources of energy like water or coal fields. Mass production of goods were allowable due to advances in interchangeable parts and assembly line production. Capitalist ideas like competition forced factories to find ways to make things faster, cheaper and more efficient.
Factory Production Concentrates production in oneplace [materials, labor]. Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. Requires a lot of capital investment[factory, machines, etc.] morethan skilled labor. Only 10% of English industry in 1850.
Textile FactoryWorkers in England
The Factory System Rigid schedule. 12-14 hour day. Dangerous conditions. Mind-numbing monotony.
Textile FactoryWorkers in England
John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”
The Power Loom
James Watt’s Steam Engine
An Early Steam Locomotive
The “Peoples’ Charter” Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett. Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform. Votes for all men. Equal electoral districts. Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament [MPs] be property owners. Payment for Members of Parliament. Annual general elections. The secret ballot.
Adam Smith Laissez faire Law of Self-Interest Law of Competition Law of Supply and Demand
Thomas Malthus Population growth willoutpace the food supply. War, disease, or faminecould control population. The poor should have less children. Food supply will then keep up with population.
The Utilitarians:Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number. There is a role to play for government intervention to provide some social safetynet.
The Socialists:Utopians & Marxists People as a society would operate and own themeans of production, not individuals. Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few. Tried to build perfect communities [utopias].
Socialism(1800s-1900s) It is important to know that there are different types of socialism. The Utopian kind who sought to create a perfect society but that did not work out too well. The next stage of socialists were those who sought to create a classless society with control held by the workers. This version was best described by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marx's book, The Communist Manifesto, suggested that a class warfare between the rich (bourgeoisie) and the workers (proletariat) would end with the workers controlling the means of production. The Soviet Russians would be the first to adopt the ideals of Marx to become the world's first communist country. Others, like North Korea (left) followed in the following decades.
Government Response Abolition of slavery in the coloniesin 1832 [to raise wages in Britain]. Sadler Commissionto look intoworking conditions Factory Act – child labor. New Poor Law  – indoor relief. Poor houses. Reform Bill – broadens thevote for the cities.
American Revolution (1775-1783) Britain's American colonies, in the mid-1700s, began to resist against parliamentary tax legislation and its violation of English rights. The colonies created a continental congress to begin formulating those things required for a separation, including an army and military leadership. On 4 July 1776, the colonies declared their independence. The thinking that lay behind the declaration was firmly rooted in Enlightenment thinking such as inalienable rights and government based on the consent of the governed. It was France that would provide the needed supplies and money for the Americans to win the war and Britain did surrender in 1781. The subsequent democratic government based on the will of the people influenced many other revolutions and uprisings in the decades and centuries to come. Washington and his men cross the Delaware to face Hessians on the other side.
Louis XVI of France He presided, along with his Austrian wife Marie Antoinette, over the devolution of the French monarchy at the hands of angry peasant mobs. In 1788, he attempted to raise money through tax reforms through a new parliament but the Enlightenment-influenced members set out to create a real parliament with voting powers and not the tool that the king hoped they would be. By 1789, the revolution was under way. While the king attempted to appease the peasants with limited reforms, it was not enough. While European monarchs and aristocrats (as well as church leaders) voiced their opposition to the revolution, the leaders of the movement grew more radical. In 1793, the radicals abolished the monarchy and Louis and his wife were decapitated at the guillotine. The executions ushered in the Reign of Terror.
National Assembly (late 1700s) This was the creation of the Third Estate, who broke away from the Estates General, the legislative body during the monarchial period of French history. The Third Estate was heavily influenced by Enlightenment thinking and the success and ideals of the American revolution. Operating under the idea of "life, liberty and fraternity," they pushed Enlightenment ideas and adopted a new constitution in 1791 which created a constitutional monarchy. However, the Assembly could not last and it could not control the excesses of the movement and could not fulfill all of their ideals.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789) Declared by the French National Assembly prior to the revolution, it would be the basis of the Constitution of 1791. It declared that all men were born free and equal with regards to rights. The major rights mentioned include liberty and private property. It also detailed freedoms with regards to religion and speech. It stood in direct opposition to the king (Louis XVI) particularly and the monarchial system in general.
The French Revolution (La Révolution) It was a revolution that began in 1789 and led to the immediate trial and execution of King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. The rule of France passed to the radical Jacobins who initiated the “reign of terror.” The subsequent instability and government incompetence led to the rise of Napoléon Bonaparte. C'était une révolution qui a commencé en 1789 et a causé le procès immédiat et l'exécution du Roi Louis XVI et de Marie Antoinette. L’autorité de la France a passé aux Jacobins radicaux qui ont lancé le "règne de terreur.” L'instabilité qui a suivi et l'incompétence gouvernementale ont causé l'ascension de Napoléon Bonaparte.
Napoléon Bonaparte He was a French general who led a coup d'état in 1799. He crowned himself emperor by 1804 with a new constitution. He initiated political and social reforms that created a certain level of stability. His civil code of laws created universal male enfranchisement and pushed for religious toleration. Militarily, he conquered much of Europe. He made a huge mistake in invading Russia in 1812 and between the Russians and the horrible Russian winter, suffered a humiliating and total defeat. The British would later exile him. Jacques-Louis David’s famous painting, Napoléon at the Saint-Bernard Pass
Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) In session from 1814 to 1815, it comprised representatives of those countries who defeated Napoléon Bonaparte. Their objective was to restore Europe to its pre-French Revolution condition. It was led by Prince Metternich of Austria and their particular goals were to restore the French monarchy and create a balance of power to ensure this type of instability would not happen again. While not perfect, Europe would not face another major war until World War I. Yet another gathering of European leaders, this time to decide the fate of France.
Congress of Vienna
Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) Formally known as Saint Domingue (the French colony of Haiti) enslaved Africans rose up against French leadership, led by Toussaint L'Ouverture. Napoléon sent French soldiers to put down the uprising and L'Ouverture was imprisoned but the rebellion continued under the leadership of Jacques Dessalines. Saint Domingue declared itself independent in 1804, renamed itself Haiti and became the first republic in Latin America. Oddly enough, the U.S. refused to recognize the new country. The Battle of Domingo by Polish artist January Suchodolski – a fight between Haitian rebels and Polish troops in French service
Toussaint L’Ouverture He was the leader of a slave rebellion against French authorities on the colony of Saint Domingue (Haiti). Even though he was a slave himself, he was education and knowledgeable in the ideals of the Enlightenment. He led the army against French forces. He was eventually imprisoned and later died but his movement did not perish and in 1803, the newly-named Haiti gained its independence.
Latin American independence movement (1800s) The revolutions in America and France along with the Enlightenment ideals spurred a similar movement in the Spanish-controlled regions of Latin America. The first to go rouge was Haiti in 1803 after a slave revolt. In the rest of the region, it was peninsulares and their privilege that motivated creoles to rise up and spread revolutionary fervor. Most Latin American countries declared independence when their parent country was dealing with the shenanigans of Napoléon. Some of the more important leaders were Simon Bolivar who fought Spanish rule in South America and Miguel Hidalgo, a priest who won appeal among the mestizo and native populations in Mexico. Even though most of Latin America was independent by 1825, some of the resultant independent governments were autocracies or oligarchies that lasted well into the 20th-century.
Fr. Miguel de Hidalgo A Creole priest, Hidalgo rallied the Amerindians and mestizos of his region (modern-day central Mexico) in 1810. His Grito de Delores (“Cry of Delores”) speech rallied people to his cause. He was able to gain some early victories before his class abandoned him, fearing social upheaval more than the lack of independence. Hidalgo was later captured and executed for his rebellion but the revolutionary movement still simmered throughout the country. Today, modern-Mexico independence celebrations include a recitation of the “Cry of Delores” and Hidalgo is looked back upon as a national hero.
Simon Bolívar He was a Creole from South America who was responsible for the revolutionary movement against Spain in that region. He, like the revolutionaries in America and France, was motivated and inspired by the Enlightened ideals. It was his dedication and military leadership that lead to the independence of Bolivia, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Ecuador. José de San Martín helped with the independence of Argentina and Chile. Bolívar hoped to create a unified country out of the various states in South America but that dream never materialized. A portrait of the South American liberator
João VI In 1807, the French invaded Portugal and in doing so, forced the Portuguese government into exile – in Brazil. King Dom João VI situated himself in Rio de Janeiro and the city was transformed into an imperial abode. Advancements in learning, libraries, gardens, as well as printing presses and increased commerce (particularly with England) characterized the move. In 1820, when Napoléon was defeated and a liberal revolution erupted in Portugal, the king returned leaving Pedro, his son, in charge of Brazil and suggested if independence comes to Brazil, he should lead it.
Pedro I When João VI left Brazil to return to his throne in Portugal in 1820, he left his son Pedro in charge of the colony. As Brazilians demanded greater political freedom, Pedro led the charge and declared himself a constitutional monarch in 1822. Though he had led the move towards an independent Brazil, he was representative of the class of people who opposed it and he was forced to abdicate his throne in Brazil to his five-year-old son, Pedro II. He later returned to Portugal to become king upon his father’s death but he soon abdicated his throne again, this time to Queen Maria II.
Monroe Doctrine (1823) Announced by President James Monroe, the Monroe Doctrine was the U.S. telling European powers that all issues with countries in the western hemisphere would have to use the U.S. as a mediator and that they were not allowed to bring a military presence to the region. It also gave the U.S. tacit approval to intervene in Latin American affairs.
Mexican-American War (1846-1848) U.S. President James K. Polk declared war against Mexico for, in part, an argument over the southern border of Texas. The subsequent war was a proving ground for future Civil War military leaders and in accordance to the treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, Mexico handed over the modern-day American southwest. The loss of territory created a large void of territory and, as later discovered, fantastic natural resources. States such as New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Nevada and California were added and lent to the argument of “manifest destiny” and the American claim of North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. It created greater liberal voices in Mexico for political and economic reform and led to the leadership of Benito Juarez in the latter 1850s.
Benito Juárez A Zapotec Indian orphan from the southern state of Oaxaca, he would study law and rise the ranks to become the president of Mexico. After the Mexican-American War, Santa Anna was confronted with a new generation of liberals, among whom included Juárez. The days of politics prior to the war would never come again. Becoming president in 1858, he sought a country governed by the rule of law and limit the power of the military and the church. Putting into place a group of liberal ideas called La Reforma, Juárez’s first term was interrupted by French occupation. The French were expelled in 1867 and Juárez returned to power but had grown more authoritative. In the latter years of his rule, he dealt with rebellion led by Porfirio Diaz. Juárez defeated him and attempted to maintain his policies of helping the poor and farmers. The two sides of his rule, liberalism and autocracy, tied together his ideas with nationalism. He is considered a national hero in Mexico.
U.S. Civil War (1861-1865) As Russia emancipated its serfs, the U.S. fought a bloody civil war over the issue. The preoccupation of the United States also detracted the country from its Monroe Doctrine. In the interim, France took control over Mexico under the rule of Maximilian von Habsburg. The conflict was part of a world-wide move towards the emancipation of slaves/serfs (also seen in Brazil) that fed the industries that would be responsible for the economic explosions seen throughout Europe and the United States. The end of the war led to constitutional changes but in real terms, little changed. However, the economic growth did occur and after- wards, the U.S. reasserted its Monroe doctrine and in the following decades, expanded the extent of its spheres of influence. The war also greatly expanded the spread of railroads and commerce throughout the whole of the country.
Spanish-American War (1898) Responding to the destruction of the USS Maine in Havana harbor and for the purpose of protecting American businesses in Cuba and Cubans from brutal Spanish overlords, the U.S. declared war on Spain and fought it mainly in Cuba and the Philippines. The war eventually gave the U.S. Guam, Puerto Rico and the Philippines with operational control of Cuba.
“New” Imperialism (1800s-1900s) Following the European expansion period of the 1500s and 1600s, this later incarnation in the late 1800s pertained to wealthy countries seeking economic control over weaker states. Such footholds in other areas allowed for military bases and imperialistic competition as well as the search for markets and natural resources. The main justification for such tactics included the spread of Christianity, Social Darwinism and the concept of the "white man's burden."
Social Darwinism (1800s) Borne out of the ideas of Charles Darwin, it was the concept that explained why some businesses or countries succumbed to others; because of the "survival of the fittest" or that only the strong can and should win out.
Berlin Conference (1884-1885) It was a meeting of European powers to codify the colonies that each country had in Africa and set procedures if any country wanted to expand or alter its boundaries on the continent. Oddly enough, no one native to Africa or the various colonies were represented. By 1885, the only pieces of Africa left untouched was Ethiopia and Liberia. The boundaries, arbitrarily drawn, led to future problems as long-time rivals were thrust into one colony together. The meeting of European powers in Berlin
Scramble for Africa
Leopold of Belgium Leopold II is best known for his control over the Congo Free State in central Africa as the one major colony of the small European country. Leopold grew filthy rich off the wealth of the land and since it was not under direct Belgium control, he did not have to expend money to rule it as such. He used locals as a slave force upon large rubber plantations. By 1908, protests about conditions led to Belgium taking direct control over the colony. Leopold's methods and the subsequent wealth he gained from it led to Europeans flooding the unknown or little known world in search of wealth.
Nationalism (1700s-1800s) In a dictionary sense, it means an excessive pride in one's country or culture. The various independent and unification movements during the 1700s and 1800s were based on this concept. It was prevalent during the French revolution, the Zionist movement, the Indian National Congress, the unification movements of Germany and Italy and the independence of Latin American states.
Count Camillodi Cavour Influenced by revolutionary ideas and the founder of the liberal newspaper Il Risorgimento, Cavour pushed for a liberal constitution. He became the prime minister of Piedmont in 1852 and used an alliance with France to take the northern Italian states from Austria. In uniting the Italian peninsula with Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, he limited the power of the Vatican – something seen in many liberal movements in Europe at the time. Shortly before his death, the kingdom of Italy was established under the domain of Victor Emmanuel II. “The man who trusts men will make fewer mistakes than he who distrusts them.”
Italian unification (1861) The independent states of the Italian peninsula were unified under the nationalist movement of Giuseppe Garibaldi, Giuseppe Mazzini and Count Camillodi Cavour. Unification was complete by 1861.
Otto von Bismarck He was the chancellor of Prussia whose military exploits led to the unification and expansion of a German state through a policy of "blood and iron” (Blut und Eisen). As leader of the Germanic state of Prussia, he granted universal rights to all men. Additionally, he was instrumental with the formation and leadership of the new unified Germany. A portrait of the Prussian leader “Laws are like sausages. It is better not to see them being made.”
German unification (1871) In the 19th-century, various independent German-speaking states, led by the chancellor of Prussia Otto von Bismarck, unified to create a Germanic state. The state expanded with von Bismarck's military exploits against Austria, France and Denmark. Unification was complete by 1871 with the Prussian king, Wilhelm, named the first leader of Germany.
Zionism (late 1800s-early 1900s) It was a nationalist movement that began in the late 1800s under the direction of Theodore Herzl of Austria (right). After WW I, with the release of the British Balfour Declaration which recognized and supported the existence of a Jewish state, Jewish immigration into Palestine rose sharply. The influx created tensions between Jews and Palestinian Arabs. After WW II, the United Nations officially created a Jewish state out of the British mandated area of Palestine. The subsequent years were marked by war between Israel and the Arab states.