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AP Gov Exam Review

AP Gov Exam Review

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AP Gov Exam Review

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  1. AP Gov Exam Review Key terms, charts and graphs

  2. The Policymaking System • The process by which policy comes into being and evolves over time

  3. The Constitution • Foundations • The philosophy of John Locke • Second Treatise on Civil Government • Natural rights • Consent of the governed (Social Contract Theory) • Limited government • Declaration of Independence • Concepts of: Democracy and Republicanism

  4. The Agenda in Philadelphia • The Equality Issues • Equality and Representation of the States • New Jersey Plan—equal representation in states • Virginia Plan—population-based representation • Connecticut Compromise • Slavery • Three-fifths compromise • Political Equality and voting left to states

  5. The Madisonian Model

  6. The Madisonian Model

  7. Individual Rights • Only these protections were included • No suspension of Writ of Habeas Corpus • No Bills of attainder • Prohibition of Ex post facto laws • No religious qualifications for public office • Trial by jury in most cases • Strict standards for charges of Treason • Omission of others led to demand for a Bill of Rights

  8. Ratifying the Constitution

  9. Constitutional Change

  10. Defining Federalism

  11. Judicial Review • Marbury v. Madison 1803 – Established the Judiciary’s ability to interpret the constitutionality of the laws of Congress • McCulloch v. Maryland –Strengthened the implied powers of the Federal Government • Gibbons v. Ogden • Affirmed the Federal Government’s authority to regulate interstate commerce

  12. The Constitutional Basis of Federalism

  13. Intergovernmental Relations Today • Fiscal Federalism • The Grant System: Distributing the Federal Pie • Categorical Grants: federal grants that can be used for specific purposes; grants with strings attached • Project Grants: based on merit • Formula Grants: amount varies based on formulas • Block Grants: federal grants given more or less automatically to support broad programs • Grants are given to states and local governments.

  14. Civil Liberties • The legal constitutional protections against the government • (“Congress shall make no law . . . “) • The Bill of Rights and the States • Written to restrict the national government • “Congress shall make no law…” • Barron v. Baltimore (1833) • Most have been “incorporated” through the 14th Amendment, and now restrict state and local governments • First Amendment protection of speech first incorporated to states in Gitlow v. New York (1925)

  15. Freedom of Religion Establishment clause Free exercise clause Lemon Test Freedom of Expression Prior restraint Free speech and public order Free press and fair trial Obscenity Miller Test Libel and slander Symbolic speech Commercial Speech Regulation of the Public airways Freedom of Assembly Right to assemble Right to associate Right to Bear Arms Militia, right to bear arms Defendant’s Rights Miranda Searches and seizures Exclusionary Rule Self-incrimination Right to counsel Trials Cruel and unusual punishment Right to Privacy? 9th Amend. (“Penumbra”) The Bill of Rights

  16. The Incorporation Doctrine(Sometimes referred to as “selective incorporation”)

  17. Civil RightsProtected mostly through the 14th Amendment

  18. Civil Rights • Racial Segregation • De jure & de facto • Key Cases & Laws • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) • Brown v. Board of Education (1954) • Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Voting Rights Act of 1965

  19. Civil Rights • Gender • 19th Amendment • ERA • Comparable Worth • Title IX • Americans w/Disabilities Act • Lawrence v. Texas (2003) • DOMA • affirmative action • Regents of the University of California v Bakke (1978) • Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)

  20. The American People

  21. The American People • The Regional Shift • Population shift from east to west • Reapportionment: the process of reallocating seats in the House of Representatives every 10 years on the basis of the results of the census • Redistricting: the redrawing of district lines after the census • Gerrymandering: the manipulation of district lines to favor one’s party

  22. Public Opinion & Media high-tech politics print media trial balloons mass media broadcast media soundbites media event narrowcasting talking head press conferences chains policy agenda investigative journalism beats policy entrepreneurs • More Key Terms: • exit poll • demography • political socialization • political ideology • gender gap • melting pot • minority majority • sample • sampling error • random sampling • random digit dialing • political participation • protest • civil disobedience

  23. How American Learn About Politics: Political Socialization • Political Learning Over a Lifetime • Aging increases political participation and strength of party attachment.

  24. What Americans Value: Political Ideologies

  25. The Party in the Electorate

  26. Party Coalitions

  27. Money and Campaigning • The Maze of Campaign Finance Reforms • Soft Money: political contributions (not subject to contribution limits) earmarked for party-building expenses or generic party advertising • The McCain-Feingold Act (2002) banned soft money, increased amount of individual contributions, and limited “issue ads.” • 527s: independent groups that seek to influence political process but are not subject to contribution restricts because they do not directly seek election of particular candidates

  28. Money and Campaigning • The Proliferation of PACs • Political Action Committees (PACs): created by law in 1974 to allow corporations, labor unions and other interest groups to donate money to campaigns; PACs are registered with and monitored by the FEC. • As of 2006 there were 4,217 PACs. • PACs contributed over $372.1 million to congressional candidates in 2006. • PACs donate to candidates who support their issue. • PACs do not “buy” candidates, but give to candidates who support them in the first place.

  29. “Red & Blue States”

  30. Whether to Vote: A Citizen’s First Choice From Government in America, 13th edition.

  31. Whether to Vote: A Citizen’s First Choice

  32. How Americans Vote: Explaining Citizens’ Decisions

  33. Interest Groups • Pluralist Theory • Elite Theory   • HyperpluralistTheory • Downs Model: • Potential group • Actual group • Collective good • Free-rider problem • Selective benefits • Olsen’s Law of Large Groups • Strategies employed • Lobbying • Electioneering • Litigation • Going public • Iron Triangles (subgovernments)

  34. Congressional Elections • Who Wins Elections? • Incumbents: Those already holding office.

  35. The House 435 members, 2-year terms of office Initiates all revenue bills, more influential on budget House Rules Committee Limited debates The Senate 100 members, 6-year terms of office Gives “advice & consent,”more influential on foreign affairs Unlimited debates (filibuster) How Congress is Organized to Make Policy American Bicameralism

  36. The House Led by Speaker of the House—elected by House members Presides over House Major role in committee assignments and legislation Assisted by majority leader and whips The Senate Formally lead by Vice President Really lead by Majority Leader—chosen by party members Assisted by whips Must work with Minority leader How Congress is Organized to Make Policy Congressional Leadership

  37. How Congress is Organized to Make Policy

  38. How Congress is Organized to Make Policy • Committees and Subcommittees • Standing committees: subject matter committees that handle bills in different policy areas • Joint committees: a few subject-matter areas—membership drawn from House and Senate • Conference committees: resolve differences in House and Senate bills • Select committees: created for a specific purpose, such as the Watergate investigation

  39. The Congressional Process

  40. The Presidents

  41. Presidential Powers

  42. Running the Government: The Chief Executive

  43. Running the Government:The Chief Executive • The Executive Office • Made up of policymaking and advisory bodies • Three principle groups: NSC, CEA, OMB

  44. Presidential Leadership of Congress: The Politics of Shared Powers

  45. Presidential Leadership of Congress: The Politics of Shared Powers

  46. Presidential Leadership of Congress: The Politics of Shared Powers

  47. Power from the People:The Public Presidency • Presidential Approval • Receives much effort by the White House • Product of many factors: predispositions, “honeymoon,” rally events • Changes can highlight good or bad decisions

  48. The Presidency • Other key terms • Twenty-second Amendment • impeachment • Watergate • Twenty-fifth Amendment • presidential coattails • War Powers Resolution • legislative veto • Crisis manager

  49. The Federal Budget • Key Terms • budget • deficit • expenditures • revenues • federal debt • income tax • payroll taxes • Sixteenth Amendment • tax expenditures • Social Security Act • Medicare • incrementalism • uncontrolled expenditures • entitlements • House Ways and Means Committee • Senate Finance Committee • Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 • Congressional Budget Office • budget resolution • reconciliation • authorization bill • appropriations bill • continuing resolutions

  50. The Budgetary Process