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AP Exam Review

AP Exam Review

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AP Exam Review

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  1. AP Exam Review • Literary Terms

  2. Synecdoche • Figurative language in which part of the whole is used to represent the whole/entire object • Car=“Wheels” • King/Rule=“Crown” or “Throne”

  3. Litotes • An understatement in which an idea is expressed by negating its opposite • i.e. describing a horrifying scene by saying “It was not a pretty picture.”

  4. Chiasmus • A statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is structurally reversed • i.e. Susan walked in, and out rushed Mary.

  5. Ellipsis • The omission of a word or phrase which is grammatically necessary but can be deduced from context • i.e. Some people prefer cats; others, dogs.

  6. Paradox • An apparently contradictory statement that contains some truth • i.e.: I can resist anything but temptation

  7. Syllepsis • A sentence construction in which one word is used in two senses • i.e. After he threw the ball, he threw a fit. • "When I address Fred I never have to raise either my voice or my hopes."(E.B. White, "Dog Training") • “She blew my nose and then she blew my mind."(Mick Jagger and Keith Richards, "Honky Tonk Woman")

  8. Aphorism • A concise saying that expresses a truth or idea, often using rhyme or balance • i.e.: “Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.” (B.Franklin)

  9. Metonymy • Figurative language in which the name of an object is substituted for another object that is closely associated with it • i.e. The pen (writing) is mightier than the sword (violence)

  10. Anaphora • Repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of consecutive lines or sentences. • MLK Jr.’s “I have a dream” speech

  11. Euphemism • An indirect and less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant • i.e.: “passed away” or “departed” instead or “died” • “letting someone go” instead or “firing”

  12. Apostrophe • A figure of speech in which one directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or some abstraction (speaking to death or love)

  13. Allusion • A reference to another literary work or historical event • Most common references are to the Bible, Shakespeare, or Mythology • Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Raven” • Pallas=Athena=goddess of wisdom

  14. Satire • A literary work in which human vice or folly is attacked through irony, derision, or wit; the goal is to change the behavior/issue • i.eBrave New World; Animal Farm

  15. Denotation vs. Connotation • 1: The dictionary definition of a word • 2: The implied or associative meanings of a word