AP Government Exam Review Meredith Santo B8 25 April 2012
Full Faith and Credit Clause • Provides that the various states must recognize legislative acts, public records, and judicial decisions of the other states within the United States. • This applies to the government because it makes it so other states respect the laws and judgment of other states. • Example: If a couple got a same-sex marriage in Massachusetts, and the couple moves to another state that does not allow same-sex marriage, the couple is still married because the state they moved into has to respect the laws from the state they were married in.
Privileges and Immunities Clause • States that "the citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states." This clause protects fundamental rights of individual citizens and restrains state efforts to discriminate against out-of-state citizens. • This applies to the government because it allows states to be non-discriminatory to people visiting the state. • Example: A marriage in one state is generally recognized as valid/legal in another; Allows for people to travel from state to state without being discriminatory to non-staters.
Interstate Compacts • contracts between two or more states creating an agreement on a particular policy issue, adopting a certain standard or cooperating on regional or national matters with the consent of Congress. • This applies to the government because Congress has to approve of any agreement between states. • Example: The Interstate Compact on Juveniles has been enacted by all 50 state legislatures, and the Interstate Compact on Education has been enacted by 48 state legislatures, the District of Columbia City Council, and the legislatures in three territories.
Supremacy Clause • Declare that the laws made in pursuance of the constitution under the authority of United states shall preside over others and shall be the supreme law of the land • This applies to the government because the federal government, in exercising any of the powers enumerated in the Constitution, prevail over any conflicting or inconsistent state exercise of power. • Examples: McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), wherein the court ruled that the state of Maryland could not tax the Second Bank of the United States, establishing the principle that the states could not tax the federal government.
Dual Federalism vs. Cooperative Federalism • Dual Federalism: a system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies. This is commonly known as "layer cake" federalism. • Cooperative Federalism: a system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. They may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly. This is commonly known as "marble cake" federalism. • This applies to government because they are different systems of how the national government and states should work with each other. • Example: The Tenth Amendment reserves for states or the people powers not assigned to the national government or denied to the states by the Constitution. Dualfederalism insists that powers not assigned to the national government are only for states and the people, and claims that the elastic clause is inflexible. Cooperativefederalism restricts the Tenth Amendment and posits supplements to the elastic clause.
Free Response Question • The concept of "divided government" in the United States means that one political party can control the executive branch while another controls the legislative branch. This poses problems for the President in making appointments to federal offices. • a) Describe two problems that divided government poses for the President in making federal appointments. • Two problems that divided government poses from the President in making federal appointments are that: there is a greater chance for policy or ideological conflict and it is harder to get congressional/ Senate/ legislature approval/ confirmation/ ratification of appointments • Other acceptable answers: • narrows the field of potential candidates • offices go unfilled • tougher committee scrutiny • more frequent character attacks on nominees
Free Response Question b) Identify and explain two ways Presidents try to overcome the problems described in a). Two ways Presidents try to overcome the problems are: to generate public support for him/herself by using resources like the media, and to compromise on choices by making ideological compromises that fit satisfy both parties. Other acceptable answers: building coalitions in Congress making deals (e.g., veto as threat) building coalitions with interest groups making interim recess appointments more intense background screening of nominees (looking for “bulletproof” candidates) selecting more minority nominees (i.e., “diversification”) increased reliance on White House staff (when forced to appoint officials not in line with President’s position)