AP GOV EXAM REVIEW By: Shayan Rahman, B8
Implied Powers • Powers that are not expressed in the Constitution but reasonably suggested (by the expressed powers). • This applies to the U.S. government because in case of an emergency it gives them the power to make laws and govern the people. • Examples: • Speed Limits • The Air Force • Elastic Clause
Necessary and Proper Clause (Elastic) • It is known as Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution. It gives Congress the power to make all laws that are essential and suitable for carrying out the duties of the legislative branch. It is also known as the "elastic clause" because it stretches the power of Congress. • In Wickard v. Filburn, the Supreme Court upheld a federal statute making it a crime for a farmer to produce more wheat than was allowed under price controls and production controls, even if the excess production was for the farmer's own personal consumption. The Necessary and Proper Clause was used to justify the regulation of production and consumption. • Examples: • Labor issues • Highway systems • Racial discrimination in public facilities.
Inherent Powers • Powers that a sovereign state holds, and that are not expressed but other governments have historically possessed. • In the court case, Eugene V. Debs. Debs, president of the American Railroad Union, was involved in the Pullman Strike in 1894 and challenged the federal injunction, ordering the strikers back to work. • Examples: • Regulate Immigration • Acquire territory • Grant diplomatic recognition to other nations • Protect U.S. against rebellion
Concurrent Powers • Powers that both the national and state government can possess and exercise. • Examples: • The power to tax • Build roads • Establish bankruptcy laws • Create lower courts • Set punishments for crimes • Condemn private property for public use.
Reserved Powers • Powers under the tenth amendment of the United States Constitution that are given to the states or the people, but not the federal government. • This protects the rights of the states and the people. • Examples: • Regulate trade within the state. • Provide welfare within the state. • Provide for the public health. • Regulate commerce within the state. • Determine qualifications of voters. • Establish a public school system. • Provide the public safety. • Establish local governments. • Regulate marriage laws.
Essay Question Explain how each of the political factors listed below makes it difficult for the federal government to enact public policy. Provide one example of one each. • Divided government • Weak party discipline • Growth in the number of interest groups and political action committee’s (PAC)
Essay Term • Public Policy - governmental entities enact laws, make policies, and distribute resources. • Divided Government - occurs when different parties control the House and Senate or when the majority in Congress is not from the President's party. • Weak Party Discipline – is when party members cross political lines to vote for something to benefit their constituents and supporters. • Interest Group - is a group that is determined to encourage or prevent changes in public policy without trying to be elected. • Political Action Committee (PAC) – is a private group, regardless of size, organized to elect political candidates or to advance the outcome of a political issue or legislation.
Examples • Weak Party Discipline- A senator from a certain state voting against party lines to appease the people of his state. • Growth in the number of interest groups and political action committees- Environmental regulations would make it hard to enact public policy. • Divided Government –When the majority of the Senate is democratic and House is more republican, which would make it difficult for a policy to be approved.