Periodization • Revolutions • Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution • Industrialization • Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution • Imperialism • Continuities and Breaks • Need for raw materials (exploitations) • Coerced labor • Europe Dominating
Changes is Global Commerce, Communication and Technology • PPMMMR Charts • Small local industries destroyed by imported manufactured goods (ex. India) • China and Japan forced open to trade • Truly global trade, world linked but dependent • Spreads from West to non-west (some specialization that will lead to industrialization like in Canada, Uruguay, South Africa) (profit returns to industrial nations)
Commonalities • Industrialization begins with textiles • Need for Steam and Iron • Railroads and Canals needed (specifically the Suez Canal)
Slave Trade • Atlantic Slave trade ends • Denmark 1792 • US 1807 (continue shipping but not to US) • Britain 1808 • Brazil 1830 (smuggles until 1850)
Demographic Changes • Demographic Transition: Shifting patterns • Mortality rate falls faster than birth rate so there is a population increase • Demographic stability is achieved when birth rate also slows • Voluntary birth control • No major outbreaks of disease • By 1900 75% of population live in cities • Agricultural Revolution: New crops like peanuts (China and Africa) increase population • Cash crops cause famine
Social and Gender Structure • Urbanization • Commercial Developments: Monopoly, Cartel, and Trust • Abolition: women and free blacks are the force behind abolition. Reasons for ending slavery were humanitarian and economic. William Wilberforce, Frederick Douglass • Brazil liberals want to end slavery on Enlightened ideals. Slavery ends for economic and democratic reasons. • Caribbean Islands have small slave population, so its ending is not violent socially
Political Revolutions and Independence Movements • American Revolution • Causes: beneficial neglect….. • Documents: Articles of Confederation…. • Effects: representative democracy……. • French • Causes: social inequality…. • Documents: Declaration of Rights of Man…. • Effects: Napoleon…..
Haiti: • Causes: homeland rule….. • Documents: Enlightened writers • Results: successful slave revolt • Latin America • Causes: Mercantilism….. • Documents: • Results: few….
Things to think about • Phases of Revolution • Leaders • Outside forces • Long-term effects • Who benefits • Popular Sovereignty
Nationalism and Nation-States • Rise of Nationalism • Napoleon • Congress of Vienna • Greece • Germany • Italy
Limitations • Women • Slaves • Indigenous populations • Racism • Imperialism
Rise of the West • Economic (industrialization, Mercantilism, Capitalism) • Political (democracy) • Social (growing middle class, mobility, westernization) • Expansion; imperialism and colonialism • Cultural and Artistic (Impressionism)
Reaction to the West • Russia (reform: Westernizes) • India (resist: Mugal to Sepoy) • Ottoman (reform: Young Turks) • China (resist: Taiping and Boxer) • Japan (reform: Meiji Restoration) • Imperialism causes Nationalism in subservient countries
Diverse Interpretations Modernization is positive, it’s better for everyone so don’t resist. Accept science, accept enlightenment, accept industrialization, a free market. (Western Theory). Slave Emancipation Reasons: Fear Factor, Humanitarian Factor and Economic Factor. Women: should they have more rights because of their role in revolutions? Roles more defined. Settler colony more equality
Major Comparisons and Snapshots • Compare Industrial Revolution in Western Europe and Japan • Comparative Revolutions Reaction to foreign domination in Ottoman, China, India and Japan • Colonialism vs Neo-colonialism