10th century The first windmill was seen in Persia. They were used for grinding grain and pumping water to low lying land.
Windmills of the 12th century The earliest form of windmills appeared in 12th century Persia. Located in the center are post mills which would turn to face the wind
Dutch Wind Turbines Dutch Windmills similar to the windmill pictured were used for milling grains, sawing, and pumping water out of lakes. They were also used for producing boards, paints, oil and paper, and even bread and mustard.
Tower Mills A refined version of the postmill, the tower mill grinded and stored grain, along with large sails.
Fantails Fantails are small vertical fins, added in 1745 to the back of the windmills to keep them facing oncoming wind.
The Earliest European Windmill They used wooden shafts and ring gears to achieve a horizontal movement. Post mills were made of timber based on a single vertical post.
Different Number of Blades Blades are a key factor to the turbine. Up to 24 blades can be used to power, but four seems to be the best option.
The Use of Windmills, Water and Grain Early windmills in both the eastern and western parts of the world were used for the pumping water and the milling of wheat. Even today smaller scale windmills are still used to pump water.
19th Century Windmills In this century, people in the United States of America began to use windmills to pump water for the irrigation of farms and the watering of livestock at ranches.
U.S. Windmills Wind engines (also known as American Windmills) are designed to self-regulate and keep their annular sails facing the wind.
Charles Brush 1888 Brush graduated at the University of Michigan in 1869 and constructed a wind-powered turbine in his backyard in 1888. It produced 12 kilowatts and lasted for 20 years.
1846-1908 Poul la Cour Poul La Cour built the world's first wind tunnel for aerodynamic tests. In 1891, he invented the Kratostaten, which regulates movement such as wind and the Poul la Cour Key which regulates the power from wind turbine.
Smith Putnam Design Palmer Putnam designed a wind turbine in Vermont in 1941 with two steel blades that produced 1.5MW and withstood wind speeds up to 140mph. The electric control circuit was designed to stabilize the current if the turbine becomes desynchronized from wind.
200kW Gedser Wind Turbine The Gedser wind turbine was built in Denmark, 1957, by Johannes Juul. It was equipped with an aerodynamic tip that breaks on the rotor blades. This three-bladed turbine inspired later designs.
Gedser Wind Turbine & NASA The Gedser Wind Turbine was used until 1976 then it was refurbished by NASA’s request during the mid-1970’s.
Wind Turbines and Fossil Fuels during WW2 The use of wind turbines goes hand in hand with the use of fossil fuels. As prices for fuel rose and fell, interest in wind turbines waned and increased accordingly.
Middle East They are one of the first, to build Wind Turbines onto a building. The Middle East are innovators in wind turbine designs.
Jimmy Carter’s Energy Proposal President Carter decided to face economic problems by cutting the use of resources and gaining energy through the use of environmentally friendly practices.
Wind Turbine Grid Connections Wind power's wind turbines which is then connected to an inverter that outputs energy to power lines and buildings.
CITATIONS (2009)Wind powered factories: history (and future) of industrial windmills. n.p. http://www.lowtechmagazine.com/2009/10/history-of-industrial-windmills.html (2012). Illinois Windmills. Creative Commons. n.p. http://www.illinoiswindmills.org/index_files/farm Camenson, Marcee; Finchum, Michelle.(2004) The power of wind: It’ll blow your mind.eLibrary. http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/wind/news.php Dodge D. (2001) Part 1 Early History Through 1875, Telosnet <http://telosnet.com/wind/early.html> Historyworld, (ND) History of technoglogy :http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?ParagraphID=fmx// Ostrander, S. (2010). Charles F Brush. Green Energy Ohio. http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1036/ML103620043.pdf Ponting, Clive (ND) History of technology http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=1228&HistoryID=ab11>rack=pthc Stenkjaher, N. (2009). Poul La Cour- the Danish Wind Turbine Pioneer. Nordic Folkecenter. http://www.folkecenter.net/gb/rd/wind-energy/48007/poullacour/ Traveler, John.(2010)Electricity Wind Power Turbines Generators. R R Donnelley. http://www.worldissues360.com/index.php/electricity-wind-power-turbines-generators-11299/ Vranken, Jos.(N/D) Windmills.NBTC. http://www.holland.com/global/tourism/activities/traditional/windmills.htm
CITATIONS Clark, Jeff. (2014) History of Wind Turbines. The wind Coalition http://windcoalition.org/wind-energy/history-of-wind-energy/ Jimmy Carter, "The President's Proposed Energy Policy." 18 April 1977. Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. XXXXIII, No. 14, May 1, 1977, pp. 418-420. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/carter-energy/> Cleveland, Cutler (2009). Juul, Johannes, The Encyclopedia of Earth. http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/153980/ Colburn, Robert. (2014). Advantageously Exposed Palmer Putnam’s 1.5MW Wind Turbine 1941, IEEE. http://www.todaysengineer.org/2013/May/history.asp “European State Projects 1975 - 1995” http://www.windsofchange.dk/WOC-eurstat.php KK-Electronic Team.(n.d.) Grid Connection. KK-Electronic. Web. 6 Mar 2014. <http://www.kk-electronic.com/grid-connection.asp&xgt;. Nixon, Niki (2008) Timeline: The History of Wind Power, TheGuardian. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2008/oct/17/wind-power-renewable-energy
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