Short Stories Narrators, Themes, Symbolism, Irony
Point of View Perspective is how we see something. For example: if you watched a movie about someone who falls in love and you have just fallen in love yourself, you will watch it differently than someone who has never been in love before. - Point of View in a story referes to the person who tells the story from there perspective. This person is called the narrator.
Types of Narrator 1st Person: Uses the pronoun I to tell the story, can be either a major or minor character. Subjective Narrator is usually unreliable. They tell the story from their perspective and it is difficult to trust them.
2nd Person Uses the pronoun you a lot and means that the story is told from the perspective of the person reading it. For example: “You went to school that morning” Its not used often as it is very difficult to write in.
3rd Person Uses the pronoun He or She and does not take part in the story (1st person is often in the story themselves)
Omniscient All knowing narrator. They know everything that is going on in the story and can see inside the heads of the characters. Limited Omniscient: Can only see inside some of the character’s heads and does not know everything that is going on.
How to know what type of narrator you have? How much does the narrator know? Do they know the thoughts an feelings of characters? Everyone? Time– When do events take place? Past, Present, Future? Is the narrator in the story? Do they participate in events? Why is the story being told? Why is it being told now?
The Rocking Horse Winner Comprehension Who is the narrator in The Rocking Horse Winner? What type of narrator is it? Answer the questions on the previous slide about The Rocking Horse Winner.
Theme • The central topic in literary texts. • Examples: Love, Death, Betrayal, Freedom, Good vs. Evil, Coming of Age, Power and Corruption, Survival, Courage and Heroism, Prejudice, Individual vs. Society, War • There is a never-ending list of themes • How to identify themes? Let’s check out the website.
Continued A theme may be demonstrated by the actions, utterances, or thoughts of a character in a novel. An example would be the theme of loneliness in the story Of Mice and Men, where many characters seem to be lonely.
Continued Stories can have more than 1 theme and they could involve ideas that are ethical or moral for example should someone give up a part of their freedom to live a better life? The longer the story the more complex the theme usually.
Themes and Essays When you write an essay about a theme you say something like: The theme of Life of Pi is courage because 1, 2, 3.We will go over this more later.
The Rocking Horse Winner Comprehension What do you think the theme is in The Rocking Horse Winner? Why do you think that?
Irony The expression of one’s meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite. A state of affairs or event that seems deliberately contrary to what one expects an dis often amusing. A literary technique typically used in Greek Tragedy, but which the full importance of a character’s words or actions are clear to the audience and reader, but unclear to the character (Shakespeare)
The Quite Study Room When the quite study room is full of puppies it is not quite and people cannot study.
Comprehension In The Rocking Horse Winner, what is the irony in the boy’s last speech? How is this image ironic? What is an example of situational irony in the story Boys and Girls?
Symbolism The use of symbols to represent ideas and qualities and giving them symbolic meanings that are different from a literal sense. Usually an object has a deeper meaning than it looks. Sometimes symbols can also be actions, events or words spoken.
Symbolic Examples A chain could mean a union or imprisonment. A smile could be a symbol for affection. A dove can be a symbol for peace. Red could mean love or romance. A broken mirror can mean separation. A cloud…. - And the list could go on.
Symbols are Hard To Find! Group Activity Groups 1 & 2 - What symbols exist in The Rocking Horse Winner? What do they mean? Groups 3 & 4 – What symbols exist in Boys and Girls? What do they mean?