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Short Stories

Short Stories

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Short Stories

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  1. Short Stories TUTORIAL 1

  2. Short stories are like icebergs…. 2

  3. Definition of Short Story 3 • A short story is a brief narrative written to entertain or broaden our understanding. • Archer, L., Costello, C., & Harvey, D. (1997).Reading and Writing for Success, Toronto:Harcourt Canada Ltd., p. 12.

  4. Elements of Short Stories 4 • Every detail and event in a short story is carefully chosen by the writer to contribute to the overall effect. • Archer, L., Costello, C., & Harvey, D. (1997).Reading and Writing for Success, Toronto:Harcourt Canada Ltd., p. 12.

  5. 5 1. Setting 2. Plot 3. Point of View 4. Character 5. Theme • There are five main elements of short stories…

  6. 1. Setting 6 • The setting of a short story involves both the time and place. It often connects the characters to the mood or atmosphere. • Archer, L., Costello, C., & Harvey, D. (1997).Reading and Writing for Success, Toronto:Harcourt Canada Ltd., p. 12.

  7. 2. Plot 7 • The plot is the sequence of events in a story. • Archer, L., Costello, C., & Harvey, D. (1997).Reading and Writing for Success, Toronto:Harcourt Canada Ltd., p. 12.

  8. Plot Diagram 8 • Perrine, L. (1987) Story and Structure, Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada Ltd., p. 45-52.

  9. Conflict 9 • Challenges or struggles characters deal with inside the story are called conflicts. • External conflict • man vs. man • man vs. environment • Internal conflict • man vs. himself • Perrine, L. (1987) Story and Structure, Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada Ltd., p. 46.

  10. 3. Point of View 10 • Who tells the story and how it gets told. • First Person: the author disappears into one of the characters who tells the story using "I." • Omniscient: the story is told by the author, using 3rd person, and his knowledge and choice are unlimited; all knowing. • Limited Omniscient: story told in 3rd person, but tells it from the viewpoint of one of the characters in the story. He knows all about the character he is using, but he has no knowledge of others. • Objective: author is like a camera, he can record only what he sees and hears; cannot enter a character's mind. (Dramatic) • Perrine, L. (1987) Story and Structure, Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada Ltd., p. 156-161.

  11. 4. Character 11 • Characters are presented in two ways: Directly: told straight out what a character is like. Indirectly: the author shows the character in action or by what he/she thinks, says, or does. • The protagonist is the main character. • The antagonist is the character or force opposing the main character. • Perrine, L. (1987) Story and Structure, Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada Ltd., p. 46, 76.

  12. Character Types 12 • Flat: characterized by one or two traits, summed up in a few sentences. • Round: complex and many-sided. • Stock: a type of flat, stereotypical figure who has occurred so often in fiction that his/her nature is immediately known (i.e. sinister villain, good sheriff, mad scientist, etc.) • Perrine, L. (1987) Story and Structure, Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada Ltd.

  13. Character Types 13 • Static: unchanging character from the beginning to the end. • Developing or Dynamic: undergoes a permanent change in some aspect of his/her character, personality, or outlook. Change should be plausible, meaning that the change is believable, given the details in the story. • Perrine, L. (1987) Story and Structure, Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada Ltd., p. 77-79.

  14. 5. Theme 14 • Theme is the main idea or central insight in a story. It is a generalization about life and human nature. • A theme should be stated in a complete sentence and not just as a topic. • Topic: childhood • Expanded topic: appreciating childhood memories • Theme: Appreciating childhood memories is important to growing more mature. • Perrine, L. (1987) Story and Structure, Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada Ltd., p. 108.

  15. Other Short Story Terms 15 • Antecedent action: what happens before the story begins. • Foreshadowing: revealing hints of future events. • Symbol: something that stands for or represents another thing; abstract; it can be an object, a person, situation, an action, or some other item which has a literal meaning in the story but suggests or represents other meanings as well. (I.e. a white dove might symbolize peace or freedom) • Flashback: reminiscing, going back to a previous incident • Character Foil: two characters that are completely different • Endings: • Happy • Unhappy • Surprise- a sudden new turn or twist in the plot; unexpected events that happen • Indeterminate- no clear outcome, the conflict is unresolved. • Perrine, L. (1987) Story and Structure, Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada Ltd., p. 196, 49-50.

  16. How to Read a Short Story 16 • Some strategies to consider… • Ease into the story. • Think about the title and author. • Look at the back of the book for any biographical information about the author. • Look at any illustrations and consider their connection to the title. • Read the first page and pause. Consider what you know so far about the characters, setting, conflict, and point of view. • Archer, L., Costello, C., & Harvey, D. (1997).Reading and Writing for Success, Toronto:Harcourt Canada Ltd., p. 13.

  17. How to Read a Short Story 17 • Some strategies to consider… • Get involved in the story. • Be an active reader by asking questions about what is happening. • Make predictions about what might happen. • Put yourself in the characters’ shoes. • Form opinions about what is going on. • Picture the events and setting in your mind. • Write down your favorite quotations as you read. • Make connections to what you already know. • Archer, L., Costello, C., & Harvey, D. (1997).Reading and Writing for Success, Toronto:Harcourt Canada Ltd., p. 13.

  18. How to Read a Short Story 18 • Some strategies to consider… • Write about the story. • Make jot notes to focus your thinking while you read. • If possible, annotate a copy of the story to: highlight, underline, circle, connect with arrows, add questions, definitions, or make comments/notes in the margins. • Underline any unfamiliar vocabulary. • Star important passages that connect thematically. • Perhaps draw web diagrams to keep track of the characters. • Sketch the setting. • Archer, L., Costello, C., & Harvey, D. (1997).Reading and Writing for Success, Toronto:Harcourt Canada Ltd., p. 13.

  19. To summarize… 19 All of the key components in a short story 1. Setting 2. Plot 3. Point of View 4. Character 5. Theme contribute to what lies beneath the surface of a great story.

  20. Sources 20 • Avatar illustrations courtesy of DoppleMe • Archer, L., Costello, C., & Harvey, D. (1997).Reading and Writing for Success. Toronto:Harcourt Canada Ltd. • Perrine, Laurence. (1987) Story and Structure. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada Ltd. • Images: 2010 Thinkstock