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Introduction to Ecology Chapter 18

Introduction to Ecology Chapter 18

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Introduction to Ecology Chapter 18

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  1. Introduction to EcologyChapter 18 Organisms and Their Environment

  2. What is Ecology? • Ecology is the study of interactions among organisms. • Determines relationships among living and nonliving parts of the world within the biosphere, or portion of Earth that supports life.

  3. ORGANISMS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT • I. ECOSYSTEMS: EVERYTHING IN AN ECOSYSTEM IS CONNECTED. AN ECOSYSTEM INCLUDES: • A. BIOTIC- ALL LIVING THINGS IN AN ECOSYSTEM. • B - ABIOTIC- ALL NON-LIVING THINGS IN AN ECOSYSTEM, SUCH AS SOIL, AIR AND WATER.

  4. Biotic factors • All the living things that inhabit an environment • Organisms depend upon other living things for food and reproduction. • All living organisms affect other living organisms.

  5. Abiotic factors • The nonliving parts of an environment • Include air currents, moisture, light, temperature, and soil.

  6. II. ORGANIZATION OF LIVING THINGS: • A. ORGANISM- _A SINGLE INDIVIDUAL • B. SPECIES- A GROUP OF ORGANISMS THAT CAN REPRODUCE AND PRODUCE FERTILE OFFSPRING.

  7. C. POPULATIONS- GROUP OF INDIVIDUALS OF THE SAME SPECIES_ LIVING IN THE _SAME AREA. • D. COMMUNITIES- SEVERAL DIFFERENT POPULATIONS_ THAT INTERACT IN A SPECIFIC AREA. • E. BIOSPHERE – ALL COMMUNITIES OF THE EARTH.

  8. Single Individual Levels of Organization

  9. Population • Population-a group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time • May compete with one another for food, water, mates, and other resources.

  10. A collection of interacting populations. A change in one population in a community will cause changes in the other populations. Community

  11. An ecosystem is made up of the interactions among the populations in a community and the community’s physical surroundings, or abiotic factors. Ecosystem

  12. III. NICHE VS. HABITAT: • A. NICHE IS HOW AN ORGANISM LIVES (WHAT IT DOES) INCLUDING REPRODUCTION, TIME OF DAY IT IS MOST ACTIVE, TYPE OF SPECIES INTERACTIONS, ETC. • B. HABITAT IS WHERE IT LIVES.

  13. Habitat-the place where an organism lives out its life. Niche-the role and position an organism has in its environment. Niche-might reveal what food the organism eats, how far it roams in search of food, where it lives, etc. Occupying different niches reduces competition among organisms Parts of an Ecosystem

  14. IV. FIVE TYPES OF SPECIES INTERACTIONS: • A. PREDATION- ONE ORGANISM (PREDATOR) kills and eats another (PREY). EXAMPLE: LION EATING ZEBRA. • B. COMPETITION- _two species THAT DEPEND ON THE same LIMITED RESOURCE. EXAMPLES: TWO FLOWERS NEEDING POLLINATION, LIONS AND HYENAS NEEDING FOOD. • C. PARASITISM- ONE SPECIES (PARASITE) THAT lives in or on another (HOST) WITHOUT IMMEDIATELY KILLING IT EXAMPLE: TICKS AND A DOG.

  15. D. MUTUALISM- A cooperative partnership BETWEEN TWO SPECIES THAT BENEFITS BOTH. EXAMPLE: HUMANS AND INTESTINAL BACTERIA. • E. COMMENSALISM- A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO SPECIES where one benefits but the other is not harmed. EXAMPLE: SHARK AND REMORA.

  16. Predator and Prey • Relationship in which one organism kills (predator) and eats another (prey) • Organisms fight for survival

  17. Competition • Two or more species dependant on the same resource.

  18. Parasitism • A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of another

  19. Mutualism • A symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit. Bees and birds visit flowers in search of pollen and nectar. In the process flowers are pollinated.

  20. Commensalism • Symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor benefited. The Patella gets it food from the plant, the Euklonia, which is not harmed or damaged in the process.

  21. NUTRITION AND ENERGY FLOW • I. ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS • A. ALMOST all ORGANISMS REQUIRE ENERGY FROM THE sun: • 1. DIRECTLY- producers ( MAKES THEIR OWN FOOD-autotrophs) • 2. INDIRECTLY- consumers (DO NOT MAKE THEIR OWN FOOD - heterotrophs)

  22. II. WHO EATS WHAT IN AN ECOSYSTEM? • A. PRODUCER- MAKES ITS OWN FOOD, EXAMPLES - plants, algae, some bacteria • B. CONSUMER- Gets energy by eating other organisms

  23. 1. Herbivore_ -EATS PRODUCERS, EXAMPLES - COWS, SHEEP, GRASSHOPPERS • 2. Carnivore - EATS OTHER CONSUMERS, EXAMPLES - LION, WOLVES • 3. Omnivore - EATS BOTH PRODUCERS AND CONSUMERS, EXAMPLES - HUMANS, BEARS, PIGS • 4. Decomposer - BREAKS DOWN DEAD ORGANISMS, EXAMPLES - FUNGI AND BACTERIA

  24. III. HOW ENERGY IS RELEASED? • A. Photosynthesis (chloroplast)- CONVERTS ENERGY FROM THE SUN TO SUGAR 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + SUNLIGHT  C6H12 O6 + 6 O2 • B. Respiration (mitochondria)- CONVERTS SUGAR INTO ENERGY • C6H12 O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ENERGY

  25. IV. ENERGY IS TRANSFERRED THROUGH FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS, AND TROPHIC LEVELS • A. Food chain IS A SERIES OF ENERGY TRANSFERS AS ONE ORGANISM IS CONSUMED BY ANOTHER. EXAMPLE - ALGAE KRILL COD LEOPARD SEAL KILLER WHALE • B. Food Web - MORE THAN ONE FOOD CHAIN LINKED TOGETHER

  26. Trophic Level_ - CHANGE IN USEABLE ENERGY IN A FOOD CHAIN/WEB, • MOST ENERGY AT THE BOTTOM OF A TROPHIC LEVEL

  27. V. WATER CYCLE: • A. SUNLIGHT CAUSES evaporation & transpiration • B. WATER VAPOR COOLS AND forms clouds • C. CLOUDS BECOME saturated and precipitate • D. CYCLE repeats_

  28. Source of Energy

  29. Evaporation

  30. Transpiration

  31. Precipitation

  32. Condensation The movement through plants The Clouds form Transpiration Precipitation The rain falls Evaporation The vapor rises

  33. - - H H o + Water Chemical Properties • Two atoms of hydrogen • One atom of oxygen

  34. Ground Water

  35. VI. CARBON CYCLE: • A. CARBON DIOXIDE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE IS USED IN photosynthesis_ • B. Oxygen_ IS RELEASED AS A BY PRODUCT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS • C. ORGANISMS TAKE IN OXYGEN breath out_ CARBON DIOXIDE. • D. DECOMPOSING OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS PRODUCES carbon dioxide CO2__ • E. BURNING OF _fossil fuels_ PRODUCES CARBON DIOXIDE

  36. 1990s values

  37. VII. NITROGEN CYCLE: • A. NITROGEN GAS FROM THE ATMOSPHERE IS ABSORBED INTO THE ROOTS OF PLANTS BY _nitrogen fixing bacteria_ • B. ORGANISMS EAT plants • C. ANIMALS RELEASE AMMONIA NH4 IN THEIR wastes • AMMONIA IS BROKEN DOWN INTO NITROGEN BY decomposers • OTHER CYCLES: • SULFUR ,CALCIUM, PHOSPOROUS