North = Industry & Immigrants South= Agriculture based on slavery
Political & Social Catalyst According to the decision slaves are property! No one can be denied life, liberty or PROPERTY. Ruling makes Missouri Compromise and Kansas-Nebraska Act void! Missouri Compromise 1820 • Missouri Compromise Missouri=Slave Maine = Free 36’30 – above this line all states are free, below this line all states are slave. Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Kansas Nebraska Act 1854 Dred Scott Decision 1857 Harriet Beecher Stowe John Brown’s Raid 1859 Popular Sovereignty Most Popular Antislavery Statement of the period Slavery legal In all territories Lincoln-Douglas Debate Kansas – Nebraska Act People would decide if a state was Slave or free! The people vote on it! Goes against the Missouri Compromise
CIVIL WAR TIMELINE 1861 • The Confederates attack on Fort Sumter in April signals the start of the Civil War. • The South wins the First Battle of Bull Run 1862 • After the Battle of Antietam in September, the confederate army under the command of General Robert E. Lee retreats into Virginia. • In December, the Confederates defeat a Union army at Fredericksburg. 1863 • The Emancipation Proclamation takes effect on January 1. • In July, both sides suffer huge losses in the Union victory at Gettysburg. • The Union gains control of the Mississippi River. 1864 • Sherman captures Atlanta and begins his march to the sea. • Lincoln wins reelection. 1865 • The surrender of Lee and other Confederate commanders ends the Civil War. • Ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment abolishes slavery. • April 15 Abraham Lincoln dies after being shot by John Wilkes Booth.
Introduction to Reconstruction What is Reconstruction? What does it mean to reconstruct? • Webster’s definition of Reconstruction – “to rebuild again and make whole what has become two or more parts.” What needs to be rebuilt again? • Southern Economy • Southern state governments • Southern social structure • Total reconstruction, North and South, of attitudes towards civil rights. Timeline: Reconstruction begins in 1863 after the Emancipation Proclamation and ends in 1877 when the federal government, officially tired of the whole process left the South, and African Americans were left to fend for themselves against their former white masters. • Three types of Attitudes that would fight for control of Reconstruction: • Radical: seeking to make drastic reforms in society as it is • Moderate: not holding extreme views – in the middle of political issues, between radicals and conservatives. • Conservative: desiring to preserve existing institutions; opposed to any radical changes
Lincoln/Moderate • pardon to all supporters of Confederacy, except high-ranking officials, who took oath of loyalty and pledged to accept end of slavery • when 10% of voters took the oath, that state could establish a state government and apply for readmission to Union • each state had to abolish slavery in their state constitutions • he offered former slaves no role in shaping the South’s political future • lenient so as to attract Southern support for Union cause • endorsed limited black suffrage if educated or held a “good” job
Radical Republicans • federal government’s responsibility to protect rights of former slaves. • many demanded full voting rights for former slaves • some favored giving former slaves land • wanted to get rid of racism • wanted them to have the right to vote so that they, the Republicans, could stay in power. • helped pass the 13th Amendment which abolished slavery • Wade-Davis Bill – at least half of an ex-Confederate state had to pledge loyalty
Reconstruction Civil War ended April 9, 1865 5 days later John Wilkes Booth (a pro – confederate) shot Lincoln. Lincoln died the next morning. Andrew Johnson became president. from the South, but pro Union. Intolerant of criticism, unable to compromise Racist views Believed African Americans hold no role in Reconstruction. He felt they should return to their owners. Former slaves organized meetings and campaigned against the lack of civil rights under Johnson. Republican majority agreed. His plan ignored former slaves High-ranking Confederate soldiers won seats in Congress. Johnson pardoned many wealthy Southerners
Black Codes – Laws attempting to regulate the lives of former slaves Blacks could: Own property enter into legal marriages sue and be sued in court Blacks could not: Testify against white people serve in a jury or state militia vote Former slaves were required to possess written evidence of employment Some states allowed for black youth to be assigned as an apprentice without parental consent
Congress reconvened – December Johnson says reconstruction complete! Since all Southern states had established governments Radicals disagreed – said these states were under the control of Rebels Thought new governments should be established and that blacks should be given the right to vote.
Radicals and Moderates joined together. They refused to seat the newly elected Southern representatives Established a joint committee to investigate the progress of Reconstruction. Early 1866- Senator Lyman Trumball proposed 2 bills 1. extend the life of the Freedmans Bureau – agency empowered to protect legal rights of former slaves, provide for their education and medical care. 2. Civil Rights Act of 1866 – defined all persons born in the U.S. (except Indians) as national citizens > spelled out the rights they were to enjoy without regard to race. This left the new Southern governments in place but required them to give Black Southerners the same legal rights as White Southerners excluding the right to vote. Both bills passed through congress Johnson vetoed both bills – claiming they threatened to centralize power in the National government and deprive the states to handle their own affairs.
In April Congress overrode the President and passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 • 1st major law in America History to pass over president veto • marked a major change in status for African Americans • fearing future congress repealing the Act – they approved and sent to the states the 14th Amendment – Civil Rights in the States.
Congress then demanded the Southern States to ratify the 14th Amendment to regain their seats in the House and Senate Johnson denounced that proposal 10 out of 11 Southern States rejected the 14th Amendment – only Tennessee ratified it Congress began its own plan of Reconstruction March 1867 – Reconstruction Acts Divided the South into 5 military districts • Each state had to hold a constitutional convention with black and white represented • Former Confederate officials could neither vote nor serve as delegates • New constitutions had to be ratified that did not restrict the right to vote because of race • Had to ratify the 14th Amendment After completion States could be readmitted to the Union.
1867 – Congress enacted the Tenure of Office Act barred the President from removing office holders, including members of his cabinet without the consent of the Senate Johnson felt this was an unconstitutional restriction on his authority – so he removed Secretary of War Edwin Staton Moderates and Radicals in the House – voted to impeach Trial took place spring if 1868 – 1st time a pres had actually been put on trial. 35-19 to convict > one vote short of 2/3 majority
Election of 1868 Republican – Ulysses S. Grant platform = “waving the bloody shirt” Democrat – Horatio Seymore platform = denounced reconstruction as unconstitutional. Grant won Congress approved the 15th Amendment – prohibiting any state from limiting the right to vote because of race. Ratified in 1870.
Amendment Ad Create an advertisement for each Reconstruction Amendment (13, 14, 15) Your goal is to convince the public to support the amendment. Each advertisement should be in color. You must include: 1. Slogan and/or title 2. Explain the amendment (in your own words) 3. Image/symbol 4. Reasons (at least 2) why amendment should be supported **Remember you are creating an advertisement- think of the ads you see everyday and how you can make your advertisement effective You have today in class to work on it…. It is due Friday!
Rubric 7 pts Explanation 7 pts Image/symbol 7 pts Reasons 7 pts Slogan and/or title 7 pts Color, neatness, effort _______________________ 35 pts for each Amendment 105 possible points!
Poor whites and • freedmen have no • jobs, no homes, and • no money to buy • land • Poor whites and • freedman sign • contracts to work a • landlord's acreage • in exchange for part • of the crop • Sharecropper • cannot leave • the farm as • long as he is • in debt to the • landlord Sharecroppingand the spiralof debt • Landlord keeps track • of the money that • sharecroppers owe • him for housing and • food • At harvest time, the • sharecropper owes • more to the landlord • than his share of the • crop is worth
WORSE THAN SLAVERY • How easily wicked and treasonable organizations may gain the control over the peaceable and the industrious members of society has always been signally apparent at the South. A band of wild and desperate young men, maddened with whisky and torn by demoniac passions, is the governing power in Texas and Alabama, Georgia, and even Kentucky. Masked, armed, and supplied with horses and money by the Democratic candidates for office, they ride over the country at midnight, and perpetrate unheard-of enormities. It is said, and no doubt truly, that not one in a hundred of their fearful deeds is ever told. Their enormous vices and crimes are faintly depicted in the Ku-Klux reports of 1872. Yet before these infamous associations Southern society trembles. They rob, they murder, they whip, they intimidate; yet no man, white or black, dares to denounce them. If a colored man ventures to tell of some frightful assassination which he saw in the dim midnight, he is himself dragged from the prison where he had been placed for safety and slaughtered, as happened recently in Tennessee, with horrible mockeries. If a United States official becomes conspicuous in politics, he is carried into the woods and shot, as at Coushatta. In Alabama and Louisiana the bands of young ruffians patrol the country by day as well as night, shooting down Republican voters. According to a recent estimate, there is a Republican majority of 20,000 in Louisiana, yet M’Enery and his band of assassins claim to have carried the last election, and hope to win the next by their usual outrages. Nor does any Southern paper in Georgia, or Alabama, or Texas, and scarcely in Tennessee, venture even to denounce the murderers or the violators of the laws; or if any Northern journal, roused to a proper indignation by the wrongs inflicted upon peaceable settlers and citizens in the disturbed districts, calls for the suppression and punishment of the lawless crew, it is at once placed under the ban of the secret associations. Such journals (exclaims the Austin Daily Statesman) "are more to be hated than the rattlesnake." Harper’s Weekly has been especially marked in this way, and its sale is forbidden by no unmeaning threats to the booksellers of Austin. The White Leaguers are resolved that the power of a free press shall never be felt in the South, and hope to pursue their career of crime unimpeded by the voice of humanity or reason. • http://blackhistory.harpweek.com/7Illustrations/Reconstruction/unionasitwas.htm
Please write out the questions or answer in complete sentences. This is to remain in your spiral! Look at the chart on page 221 entitled, “Successes and Failures of Reconstruction.” • From the perspective of a white Southerner was Reconstruction successful? Why or Why not? • From the perspective of an African American was Reconstruction successful? Why or Why not? Read the section entitled “The Compromise of 1877” on pages 220-221. • What was the problem with the results of the presidential election of 1876? • What is the Compromise of 1877? • After the Compromise the South became Democratic again – what do you think this meant for African Americans in the South?