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  1. APES

  2. I. I. encouraged mineral exploration and mining. Mining Law of 1872 Mining Law of 1872 – • 1. First declare your belief that minerals on the land. Then spend $500 in improvements, pay $100 per year and the land is yours • 2. Domestic and foreign companies take out $2-$3 billion/ year • 3. Allows corporations and individuals to claim ownership of U.S. public lands. • 4. Leads to exploitation of land and mineral resources.

  3. "This archaic, 132-year-old law permits mining companies to gouge billions of dollars worth of minerals from public lands, without paying one red cent to the real owners, the American people. And, these same companies often leave the unsuspecting taxpayers with the bill for the billions of dollars required to clean up the environmental mess left behind." -- Senator Dale Bumpers (D- AR, retired) • •

  4. Nature and Formation of Mineral Resources A. Nonrenewable Resources Nonrenewable Resources – a concentration of naturally occurring material in or on the earth’s crust that can be extracted and processed at an affordable cost. Non-renewable resources are mineral and energy resources such as coal, oil, gold, and copper that take a long period of time to produce.

  5. Nature and Formation of Mineral Resources • 1. Metallic Mineral Resources – iron, copper, aluminum • 2. Nonmetallic Mineral Resources – salt, gypsum, clay, sand, phosphates, water and soil. • 3. Energy resource: coal, oil, natural gas and uranium

  6. Nature and Formation of Mineral Resources • B. Identified Resources – deposits of a nonrenewable mineral resource that have a known location, quantity and quality based on direct geological evidence and measurements • C. Undiscovered Resources– potential supplies of nonrenewable mineral resources that are assumed to exist on the basis of geologic knowledge and theory (specific locations, quantity and quality are not known) • D. Reserves – identified resources of minerals that can be extracted profitably at current prices. • Other Resources – resources that are not classified as reserves.

  7. Ore Formation Ore Formation 1.Magma (molten rock) – magma cools and crystallizes into various layers of mineral containing igneous rock.

  8. Ore Formation Ore Formation Hydrothermal Processes: most common way of mineral formation A. Gaps in sea floor are formed by retreating tectonic plates B. Water enters gaps and comes in contact with magma C. Superheated water dissolves minerals from rock or magma D. Metal bearing solutions cool to form hydrothermal ore deposits. E.Black Smokers – upwelling magma solidifies. Miniature volcanoes shoot hot, black, mineral rich water through vents of solidified magma on the seafloor. Support chemosynthetic organisms. • • • • •

  9. Ore Formation Ore Formation • Manganese Nodules (pacific ocean)– ore nodules crystallized from hot solutions arising from volcanic activity. Contain manganese, iron copper and nickel.

  10. Ore Formation Ore Formation • 3. Sedimentary Processes – sediments settle and form ore deposits. • A. Placer Deposits – site of sediment deposition near bedrock or course gravel in streams • B. Precipitation: Water evaporates in the desert to form evaporite mineral deposits. (salt, borax, sodium carbonate) • C. Weathering – water dissolves soluble metal ions from soil and rock near earth’s surface. Ions of insoluble compounds are left in the soil to form residual deposits of metal ores such as iron and aluminum (bauxite ore).

  11. Methods For Finding Methods For Finding Mineral Deposits Mineral Deposits • A. Photos and Satellite Images • B. Airplanes fly with radiation equipment and magnetometers • C. Gravimeter (density) • D. Drilling • E. Electric Resistance Measurement • F. Seismic Surveys • G. Chemical analysis of water and plants

  12. Mineral Extraction • Surface Mining: overburden (soil and rock on top of ore) is removed and becomes spoil. • 1. open pit mining – digging holes • 2. Dredging – scraping up underwater mineral deposits • 3. Area Strip Mining – on a flat area an earthmover strips overburden • 4. Contour Strip Mining – scraping ore from hilly areas

  13. Subsurface Mining: • 1. dig a deep vertical shaft, blast underground tunnels to get mineral deposit, remove ore or coal and transport to surface • 2. disturbs less land and produces less waste • 3. less resource recovered, more dangerous and expensive • 4. Dangers: collapse, explosions (natural gas), and lung disease

  14. Environmental Impacts Environmental Impacts of Mineral Resources of Mineral Resources • A. Scarring and disruption of land, • B. Collapse or subsidence • C. Wind and water erosion of toxic laced mine waste • D. Air pollution – toxic chemicals • E. Exposure of animals to toxic waste • F. Acid mine drainage: seeping rainwater carries sulfuric acid ( acid comes from bacteria breaking down iron sulfides) from the mine to local waterway Google earth

  15. Steps Environmental Effects Disturbed land; mining accidents; health hazards; mine waste dumping; oil spills and blowouts; noise; ugliness; heat Mining exploration, extraction Processing Solid wastes; radioactive material; air, water, and soil pollution; noise; safety and health hazards; ugliness; heat transportation, purification, manufacturing Noise; ugliness thermal water pollution; pollution of air, water, and soil; solid and radioactive wastes; safety and health hazards; heat Use transportation or transmission to individual user, eventual use, and discarding Fig. 14.6, p. 326

  16. Subsurface Mine Opening Surface Mine Runoff of sediment Acid drainage from reaction of mineral or ore with water Spoil banks Percolation to groundwater Leaching may carry acids into soil and ground water supplies Leaching of toxic metals and other compounds from mine spoil Fig. 14.7, p. 326

  17. Smelting Separation of ore from gangue Melting metal Conversion to product Metal ore Recycling Discarding of product Surface mining Fig. 14.8, p. 327 Scattered in environment

  18. A. Resources (fig. 14-8) Life Cycle of Metal • Mining Ore • A. Ore has two components: gangue(waste) and desired metal • B. Separation of ore and gangue which leaves tailings • C. Smelting (air and water pollution and hazardous waste which contaminates the soil around the smelter for decades) • D. Melting Metal • E. Conversion to product and discarding product

  19. Economic Impact on Economic Impact on Mineral Supplies Mineral Supplies • A. Mineral prices are low because of subsidies: depletion allowances and deduct cost of finding more • B. Mineral scarcity does not raise the market prices • C. Mining Low Grade Ore: Some analysts say all we need to do is mine more low grade ores to meet our need 1. We are able to mine low grade ore due to improved technology – 2. The problem is cost of mining and processing, availability of fresh water, environmental impact

  20. Mine, use, throw away; no new discoveries; rising prices A Recycle; increase reserves by improved mining technology, higher prices, and new discoveries B Production Recycle, reuse, reduce consumption; increase reserves by improved mining technology, higher prices, and new discoveries C Present Depletion time A Depletion time B Depletion time C Fig. 14.9, p. 329 Time

  21. Fig. 14.10, p. 329

  22. A. Mining Oceans • 1. Minerals are found in seawater, but occur in too low of a concentration • 2. Continental shelf can be mined • 3. Deep Ocean are extremely expensive to extract (not currently viable)

  23. A. Substitutes for metals 1. Materials Revolution • 2. Ceramics and Plastics • 3. Some substitutes are inferior (aluminum for copper in wire) • 4. Will be difficult to find substitutes for helium, manganese, phosphorus and copper

  24. Evaluating Energy Sources What types of energy do we use? 1. 99% of our heat energy comes directly from the sun (renewable fusion of hydrogen atoms) 2. Indirect forms of solar energy (renewable) – wind – hydro – biomass • • •

  25. Oil and Natural Gas Coal Geothermal Energy Hot water storage Contour strip mining Floating oil drilling platform Oil storage Geothermal power plant Oil drilling platform on legs Area strip mining Pipeline Pipeline Oil well Drilling tower Mined coal Gas well Valves Water penetrates down through the rock Pump Underground coal mine Water is heated and brought up as dry steam or wet steam Impervious rock Natural gas Coal seam Oil Hot rock Water Water Magma Fig. 14.11, p. 332

  26. Society Kilocalories per Person per Day Modern industrial (United States) 260,000 Modern industrial (other developed 130,000 nations) Early 60,000 industrial Advanced agricultural 20,000 Early 12,000 agricultural Hunter– gatherer 5,000 Primitive 2,000 Fig. 14.12, p. 333

  27. Nuclear power 6% Hydropower, geothermal, Solar, wind 7% Natural Gas 23% Biomass 12% Coal 22% Oil 30% Fig. 14.13a, p. 333 World

  28. Nuclear power 7% Hydropower geothermal, solar, wind 5% Natural Gas 22% Coal 22% Biomass 4% Oil 40% Fig. 14.13b, p. 333 United States

  29. 20th Century Trends 1. Coal use decreases from 55% to 22% 2. Oil increased from 2% to 30% 3. Natural Gas increased from 0% to 25% 4. Nuclear increased from 0% to 6% • • • •

  30. 100 Wood Coal 80 Contribution to total energy consumption (percent) Natural gas 60 Oil 40 Hydrogen Solar 20 Nuclear 0 1800 1875 1950 2025 2100 Year Fig. 14.14, p. 334

  31. Evaluating Energy Sources Evaluating Energy Resources; Take into consideration the following: – Availability – net energy yield – Cost – environmental impact •

  32. Space Heating Passive solar 5.8 Natural gas 4.9 Oil 4.5 Active solar 1.9 Coal gasification Electric resistance heating (coal-fired plant) Electric resistance heating (natural-gas-fired plant) 1.5 0.4 0.4 Electric resistance heating (nuclear plant) 0.3 Fig. 14.15a, p. 335

  33. High-Temperature Industrial Heat Surface-mined coal Underground-mined coal Natural gas Oil Coal gasification Direct solar (highly concentrated by mirrors, heliostats, or other devices) 28.2 25.8 4.9 4.7 1.5 0.9 Fig. 14.15b, p. 335

  34. Transportation Natural gas 4.9 Gasoline (refined crude oil) 4.1 Biofuel (ethyl alcohol) 1.9 Coal liquefaction 1.4 Oil shale 1.2 Fig. 14.15c, p. 335

  35. Net Energy Net Energy – total amount of energy available from a given source minus the amount of energy used to get the energy to consumers (locate, remove, process and transport) G. Net Energy Ratio - ratio of useful energy produced to the useful energy used to produce it. • •

  36. Oil • A. Petroleum/Crude Oil – thick liquid consisting of hundreds of combustible hydrocarbons and small concentrations of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen impurities. • B. Produced by the decomposition of dead plankton that were buried under ancient lakes and oceans. It is found dispersed in rocks. um/knowl/4/2index.htm?origin.html

  37. Oil Life Cycle • 1. Primary Oil Recovery • a. drill well • b. pump out light crude oil • 1:14

  38. Secondary Oil Recovery • a. pump water under pressure into a well to force heavy crude oil toward the well • b. pump oil and water mixture to the surface • c. separate oil and water • d. reuse water to get more oil

  39. Tertiary Oil Recovery • a. inject detergent to dissolve the remaining heavy oil • b. pump mixture to the surface • c. separate out the oil • d. reuse detergent

  40. • Transport oil to the refinery (pipeline, truck, boat)

  41. Oil refining • – heating and distilling based on boiling points of the various petrochemicals found in the crude oil. (fractional distillation in a cracking tower)

  42. Gases Gasoline Aviation fuel Heating oil Heated crude oil Diesel oil Naphtha Grease and wax Furnace Fig. 14.16, p. 337 Asphalt

  43. Conversion to product • a. Industrial organic chemicals • b. Pesticides • c. Plastics • d. Synthetic fibers • e. Paints • f. Medicines • g. Fuel

  44. . Supplies Location of World Oil • 1. 64% Middle East (67% OPEC – 11 countries) – a. Saudi Arabia (26%) – b. Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, (9-10% each) • 2. Latin America (14%) (Venezuela and Mexico) • 3. Africa (7%) • 4. Former Soviet Union (6%) • 5. Asia (4%) (China 3%) • 6. United States (2.3%) we import 52% of the oil we use • 7. Europe (2%)

  45. Arctic Ocean Prudhoe Bay Coal Beaufort Sea ALASKA Trans Alaska oil pipeline Gas Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Oil Prince William Sound High potential areas Gulf of Alaska Valdez CANADA Grand Banks Pacific Ocean UNITED STATES Atlantic Ocean Fig. 14.17, p. 338 MEXICO

  46. 70 60 50 Oil price per barrel ($) 40 30 20 (1997 dollars) 10 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Fig. 14.18, p. 339

  47. 40 2,000 x 109 barrels total 30 (x 109barrels per year) Annual production 20 10 0 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 2025 2050 2075 2100 Year Fig. 14.19a, p. 339 World

  48. 4 200 x 109 barrels total 1975 3 Undiscovered: 32 x 109 barrels (x 109barrels per year) Annual production Proven reserves: 34 x 109 barrels 2 1 0 1900 1920 1940 1960 2080 2000 2020 2040 Year Fig. 14.19b, p. 339 United States

  49. 286% Coal-fired electricity Synthetic oil and gas produced from coal 150% 100% Coal 86% Oil 58% Natural gas 17% Nuclear power Fig. 14.20, p. 339

  50. Disadvantages Advantages Ample supply for 42–93 years Need to find substitute within 50 years Low cost (with huge subsidies) Artificially low price encourages waste and discourages search for alternatives High net energy yield Easily transported within and between countries Air pollution when burned Low land use Releases CO2 when burned Moderate water pollution Fig. 14.21, p. 340