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  1. RESEARCH ESSAY Thesis ParagraphBody ParagraphsConclusion

  2. Thesis Paragraph • A thesis states the main idea of the essay. • The thesis functions as a promise to the readers, letting them know what the writer will discuss. • The thesis is the key that opens the lock to the rest of the essay.

  3. A successful working thesis has 3 characteristics: 1. It is potentially interestingto the intended audience. 2. It is as specific as possible. 3. It limitsthe topic enough to make it manageable.

  4. Thesis Support • Research information to: • Help understand and define the topic • Find examples to support the thesis • Find statistics to support the thesis • Examples and precedents: • Illustrations -- graphic descriptions • Precedents -- events that have occurred in the past • Cite authorities: • Is the authority timely? • Is the authority an expert? • Is the authority likely to be known and respected by the audience?

  5. Body Paragraphs • Topic Sentence • Generally 5-7 sentences • Have 2-3 pieces of evidence • Quote from authority • Statistics • Examples or illustrations • Transitions between pieces of evidence

  6. Body Paragraph Template • Topic Sentence • Introduce first piece of evidence • First piece of evidence (source) • Transition and introduce second piece of evidence • Second piece of evidence (source) • Transition and introduce third piece of evidence • Third piece of evidence (source)

  7. Conclusion • Be sure the essay has a conclusion. • Try not to simply restate the information in the thesis paragraph. • Draw an inference or two from the information you have assembled in your research. • Suggest further paths to which the information may lead.


  9. Why Cite Sources? • To avoid plagiarism • To credit the source with the original idea or information • To lend credibility and authority to a thesis • To back up ideas with credible illustrations, known facts, and accepted statistics

  10. Plagiarism • Plagiarism is a crime – it is the the theft of someone’s else’s words, ideas, or research. • If you commit plagiarism, you can fail a course, be expelled from college, lose your job. • The easiest route to plagiarism today is cutting and pasting from the internet.

  11. Avoid Plagiarism • Introduce any material you have borrowed from another source with a signal phrase that mentions the author (or if there is no author, the title ) of the source. • Put in quotation marks, any phrase or sentence(s) you have borrowed from the source. • If the quotation is longer than 40 words, indent the quoted words. • ANY PHRASES OR SENTENCES QUOTED EXACTLY AND NOT IN QUOTATION MARKS OR INDENTED ARE PLAGIARIZED.

  12. You will Fail The Minimum Penalty for Plagiarism is failing the essay!

  13. Internal Documentation Citing Sources in the Text of an Essay

  14. What Needs To Be Cited? • Quotations • Paraphrased ideas • Summarized information • Facts • Statistics • Studies • When in doubt, acknowledge the source of the information

  15. Ways To Cite Sources Include: • Quotation • Paraphrase • Summary

  16. Parenthetical Citation • The signal phrase or parenthetical citation must match the first word of the Works Cited citation -- usually the author’s last name -- and must include the year and page number of the quote, if taken from a paginated text: According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style," but she did not offer an explanation as to why (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

  17. Quotation • In a quotation, the exact words of the source are quoted in quotation marks. Use single quotation marks for quotes within quotes. According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

  18. Quotation • Quotations longer than 40 words are indented and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Jones's (1998) study found the following:  Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

  19. Paraphrase or Summary • In a paraphrase or summary the writer restates what the author has said in his/her own words. An APA paraphrase is also introduced with a signal phrase, and the date of the information must be cited: According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

  20. Remember... • All information borrowed from another source must be acknowledged with a parenthetical citation • Introduce borrowed information with a signal phrase: • According to Alice Ames, ... • John Smith has said…. • Samuel Jones has told us… • In a study by Dr. Elizabeth Owens, ...

  21. Remember... • The parenthetical citation must match the first word of the Works Cited citation, usually the author’s last name, and include the date and a page reference. • Quotes repeat the author’s exact words. • Paraphrases restate the author’s words in the writer’s own words. • Summaries abbreviate the author’s words.

  22. Bibliographies and Reference Lists

  23. What’s the Difference? • A Bibliography lists all the sources consulted in research for a specific essay. • A Preliminary Bibliography or Working Bibliography lists all the sources the writer thinks s/he will be using in the essay • A Reference List lists all the works actually cited in the text of the essay. • Both a Bibliography and Reference List are formatted in the same way.

  24. Overall Format • The title -- Bibliography or References-- is centered at the top of the page. It is not underlined, italicized or quoted. It should be the same font size as the rest of the citations. • The citation list is double-spaced throughout. • The citation list is alphabetized. • If there is no author, the citation begins with the title of the work – quoted if an article or poem, underlined or italicized if a book. • The first line of each citation is at the margin; subsequent lines should be indented about ten spaces.

  25. For Further Information • APA Formatting and Style Guide from the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL): • Keiser University’s APA Guide: on e-companion