CHAPTER 9 Cost of Capital
Topics in Chapter • Cost of capital components • Debt • Preferred stock • Common equity • WACC • Factors that affect WACC • Adjusting cost of capital for risk
COST OF CAPITAL Why? Business Application Min Req’d return needed on Project Reflects blended costs of raising capital Relevant “i ” Discount rate used to determine Project’s NPV or to disct FCFs by Hurdle rate • Key to understanding cost of raising $ • Risk • Financing costs • Discount Rate
Determinants of Intrinsic Value:The Weighted Average Cost of Capital Net operating profit after taxes Required investments in operating capital − Free cash flow (FCF) = FCF1 FCF2 FCF∞ Value = + + ··· + (1 + WACC)1 (1 + WACC)2 (1 + WACC)∞ Weighted average cost of capital (WACC) Firm’s debt/equity mix Market interest rates Cost of debt Cost of equity Firm’s business risk Market risk aversion
What types of long-term capital do firms use? • Long-term debt • Preferred stock • Common equity
Capital Components • Cap. components are sources of funding that come from investors. • A/P, accruals, and deferred taxes are not sources of funding that come from investors, & not included in the calculation of the cost of capital. • These items are adjusted for when calculating project cash flows, not when calculating the cost of capital.
Before-tax vs. After-tax Capital Costs • Tax effects associated with financing can be incorporated either in capital budgeting cash flows or in cost of capital. • Most firms incorporate tax effects in the cost of capital. Therefore, focus on after-tax costs. • Only cost of debt is affected.
Historical (Embedded) Costs vs. New (Marginal) Costs • The cost of capital is used primarily to make decisions which involve raising and investing new capital. So, focus on marginal (incremental) costs.
COST of CAPITALRaising $ & its Costs Debt Equity Internal RE External Common Stock Prfd Stock • Cost of Borrowing • Interest Rate
Cost of CapitalRaising $ & its Costs • Debt & Equity • CostReturn • Int. pd. Int. recd. • Divids pd. Divids Recd
EQUITIES Why? Business Application For Investor: Determine value of asset/business/company For Firm: Determine cost of attracting investors & raising equity capital Selling ownership stake to raise $ • Key to understanding valuations • What is investment worth today? • Value of: • Enterprise • Entity • Company/Firm
Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) • WACC: Blended cost or raising capital considering mix of debt & equity • WACC = (Wt of Debt)(After-tax cost of Debt) + Wt of Eqty)(Cost of Eqty) + (Wt of Prfd)(Cost of Prfd)
Cost of Equity • Know: = P0 = D1/ (rs –g) • So then: rs = D1/P0 + g
Cost of Equity • Cost of External Equity: Function of Dvids, growth, & net proceeds after adjusting for flotation costs • Cost of Internal Equity: Function of opp. Costs of divids not pd out but retained in firm to grow internally (no flot. req’d)
Cost of Preferred Stock • r = D1/P0 + g • g= 0, so cost of prfd = function of divids pd. & flot cost to issue
Determining Cost of Debt • Method 1: Ask an investment banker what coupon rate would be on new debt. • Method 2: Find bond rating for the company and use yield on similarly rated bonds. • Method 3: Find yield on the company’s existing debt.
Current vs. Historical Cost of Debt • For cost of debt, don’t use coupon rate on existing debt, which represents cost of past debt. • Use the current interest rate on new debt (think YTM). (More…)
0 1 2 30 rd = ? ... 1,250.00 -66.25 -66.25 <66.25 + 1,000> 30 1250 -66.25 -1000 5.0% x 2 = rd = 10% INPUTS N I/YR PV PMT FV OUTPUT A 15-year, 13.25% semiannual bond sells for $1,250. Tax = 40%. 60,000 Bonds o/s. What’s rd?
Component Cost of Debt • Interest is tax deductible, so the after tax (AT) cost of debt is: rd AT = rd BT(1 – T) rd AT = 10%(1 – 0.40) = 6%. • Use nominal rate. • Flotation costs small, so ignore.
Use : Dps .0126($100) rps = = $125.00(1 – 0.088) Pps (1 – F) $10.26 = = 0.090 = 9.0% $114. Cost of preferred stock: Pps = $125; 10.26% Div; Par = $100; F = 8.8%
∞ 0 1 2 rps = ? ... 10.26 10.26 10.26 -114. DQ $10.26 $114.00 = = rPer rPer $10.26 rPer = = 9% $114.00 Time Line of Preferred
Note: • Flotation costs for preferred are significant, so are reflected. Use net price. • Preferred dividends are not deductible, so no tax adjustment. Just rps. • Nominal rps is used.
Is preferred stock more or less risky to investors than debt? • More risky; company not required to pay preferred dividend. • However, firms want to pay preferred dividend. Otherwise, (1) cannot pay common dividend, (2) difficult to raise additional funds, and (3) preferred stockholders may gain control of firm.
Why is yield on preferred lower than rd? • Corporations own most preferred stock, because 70% of prfd divids nontaxable to corps. • T/4, prfd often has a lower B-T yield than the B-T yield on debt. • The A-T yield to investors and A-T cost to the issuer are higher on prfd than on debt, which is consistent w/ higher risk of prfd.
rps, AT = rps– rps(1 – 0.7)(T) = 9% – 9%(0.3)(0.4) = 7.92% rd, AT = 10% – 10%(0.4) = 6.00% A-T Risk Premium on Preferred = 1.92% Example:rps = 9%, rd = 10%, T = 40%
What are the two ways that companies can raise common equity? • Directly, by issuing new shares of common stock. • Indirectly, by reinvesting earnings that are not paid out as dividends (i.e., retaining earnings).
Why is there a cost for reinvested earnings? • Earnings can be reinvested or paid out as dividends. • Investors could buy other securities, earning a return. • Thus, there is an opportunity cost if earnings are reinvested.
Cost for Reinvested Earnings (Continued) • Opportunity cost: The return stockholders could earn on alternative investments of equal risk. • They could buy similar stocks and earn rs, or company could repurchase its own stock and earn rs. So, rs, is cost of reinvested earnings and is cost of common equity.
Three ways to determine the cost of equity, rs: 1. CAPM: rs = rRF + (rM– rRF)b = rRF + (RPM)b. 2. DCF: rs = D1/P0 + g. 3. Own-Bond-Yield-Plus-Judgmental-Risk Premium: rs = rd + Bond RP.
Equity Cost Components • Risk free = 5.6% • Mrkt Risk Prem = 6% • Beta = 1.2 • Div today = $3.12 • Price today = $50 • Growth = 5.8% • Cost of Debt = 10% • Risk prem = 3.2% • 3,000,000 shs outstanding
rs = rRF + (RPM )b = 5.6% + (6.0%)1.2 = 12.8%. CAPM Cost of Equity: rRF = 5.6%, RPM = 6%, b = 1.2
Issues in Using CAPM • Most analysts use the rate on a long-term (10 to 20 years) government bond as an estimate of rRF. • Can use Bloomberg.com to obtain US Treasuries Quotes (More…)
Issues in Using CAPM (Continued) • Most analysts use a rate of 3.5% to 6% for the market risk premium (RPM) • Estimates of beta vary, and estimates are “noisy” (they have a wide confidence interval).
D1 D0(1 + g) rs = + g = + g P0 P0 $3.12(1.058) = + 0.058 $50 = 6.6% + 5.8% = 12.4% DCF Cost of Equity, rs: D0 = $3.12; P0 = $50; g = 5.8%
Estimating the Growth Rate • Use historical growth rate if believe future be like past. • Obtain analysts’ estimates: Value Line, Zacks, Yahoo!Finance. • Use earnings retention model.
Earnings Retention Model • Suppose company has been earning 15% on equity (ROE = 15%) and been paying out 62% of its earnings. • If expected to continue as is, what’s the expected future g?
Earnings Retention Model (Continued) • Growth from earnings retention model:g = (Retention rate)(ROE) g = (1 – Payout rate)(ROE) g = (1 – 0.62)(15%) = 5.7%.Close to g = 5.8% given earlier.
Could DCF methodology be applied if g is not constant? • YES, nonconstant g stocks are expected to have constant g at some point, generally in 5 to 10 years.
The Own-Bond-Yield-Plus-Judgmental-Risk-Premium Method: rd = 10%, RP = 3.2% • rs = rd + Judgmental risk premium • rs = 10.0% + 3.2% = 13.2% • This over-own-bond-judgmental-risk premium CAPM equity risk premium, RPM. • Produces ballpark estimate of rs. Useful check.
Determining Weights for WACC • Wts are % of firm’s capital to be financed by each component. • If possible, always use the target wts for % financed by each type of capital.
Estimating Weights for the Capital Structure • If don’t know targets, better to estimate wts using current market values than current book values. • If don’t know MV of debt, then reasonable to use BV of debt, especially if S/T debt. (More…)
Estimating Weights (Continued) • Suppose the common stock price is $50 with 3 million shares outstanding; the firm has 200,000 shs of preferred stock trading at $125; and 60,000 bonds outstanding trading at quoted price of 125% of par. (More…)
Estimating Weights (Continued) • Vs = $50(3 million) = $150 million. • Vps = $25 million. • Vd = $75 million. • Total value = $150 + $25 + $75 = $250 million.
Estimating Weights (Continued) • ws = $150/$250 = 0.6 • wps = $25/$250 = 0.1 • wd = $75/$250 = 0.3 • Target wts for this co. are same as these MV wts, but often MV wts temporarily deviate from targets due to changes in stock prices.
What’s the WACC using the target weights? WACC = wdrd(1 – T) + wpsrps + wsrs WACC = 0.3(10%)(1 − 0.4) + 0.1(9%) + 0.6(12.8%) WACC = 10.38%
What factors influence a company’s WACC? • Uncontrollable factors: • Market conditions, especially interest rates. • The market risk premium. • Tax rates. • Controllable factors: • Capital structure policy. • Dividend policy. • Investment policy. Firms with riskier projects generally have higher financing costs.
Should firm-wide WACC be used for each of its divisions? • NO! Composite WACC reflects risk of an average project undertaken by the firm. • Different divisions may have different risks. Division’s WACC should be adjusted to reflect division’s risk and cap structure.
The Risk-Adjusted Divisional Cost of Capital • Estimate cost of capital division would have if it were a stand-alone firm. • This requires estimating division’s beta, cost of debt, and capital structure.
Pure Play Method for Estimating Beta for a Division or a Project • Find several publicly traded companies exclusively in project’s business. • Use average of their betas as proxy for project’s beta. • Hard to find such companies.