What is the atmosphere? • Why is the sky blue?
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Aurora Borealis • Steamed Hams?
Greek Roots • Sphere – Ball • Hemi – Half • Atmo – Air • Litho – Stone • Bio – Life • Meso – Middle • Exo – Outer • Thermo – Heat • Strat - Stratify • Trop - Turning • Ion – Ion
Atmospheric Elements (% and Movie) • Nitrogen • Most abundant element in the atmosphere. – 78.1% • Makes proteins in animals and plants • Oxygen • Second most abundant element = 20.8% • Plants = Give off O2 as waste. • Animals = Take in O2 to produce food. • CO2 • Plants = Take in CO2 to produce food. • Animals = Give off CO2 and Nitrogen as waste. Too Much CO2 in the atmosphere = Too much greenhouse effect • Ozone • Found in the stratosphere • Blocks UV radiation = good
Air Pressure • The result of the weight of a column of air pushing on an area
Air Pressure • Measured with a barometer • Aneroid / mercury
HEAT Radiation Conduction Convection
Convection • The transfer of energy by the bulk movement of molecules and differences in density. Or – Transfer of heat through fluid Density Mass / Volume The amount of stuff in a given space.
Solar Radiation entering the Atmosphere Lower Energy Long-wave Radiation A – Blocked by our atmosphere High Energy Short-wave Radiation B – Blocked by our atmosphere B A F C Visible Light C = Absorbed by atmosphere D = Absorbed by the Earth E = Reflected by Earth F = Reflected by Clouds E D
A – Incoming Shortwave Radiation that warms earth B – Long-wave Radiation emitted from Earth C – Some Long-wave Radiation escapes atmosphere D – Some Long-wave Radiation is reflected back to Earth • THIS STEP IS THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Greenhouse Effect C D A B
On Earth the Greenhouse Effect Incoming shortwave radiation from the sun, makes it thru CO2 in the atmosphere Outgoing long-wave radiation from the earth, does not make it thru CO2
Greenhouse Gases • Which is the most prevalent greenhouse gas? • H2O • CO2 • CH4
The Coriolis Effect • The earth spins faster at the equator than the poles, and therefore winds don’t travel at the same rate in a vertical path. • Winds therefore bend towards either east/west.
Creation of East/West Winds Easterlies Westerlies Trade Winds
Water Cycle EPIC • Evaporation • Water is warmed up enough to go from liquid to gas and rises in the air. • Precipitation • Enough water molecules collect in a cloud to form a droplet as either rain, snow, sleet, hail • Infiltration • The water enters into the ground. • Condensation
Air Masses that Affect the U.S.A. • m • c • T • P • A
20.9 mph 92.7 °F 71.6°F
5.3 mph 66.1°F 68.9 °F