Biochemistry Biology Chapter 3 Garcia
3-1 Objectives • Describe the structure of a water molecule. • Explain how water’s polar nature affects its ability to dissolve substances. • List two of water’s properties that result from hydrogen bonding.
Polarity polar compound- uneven pattern of charge
Hydrogen Bonding attraction that holds two water molecules together positive region is attracted to negative region
Cohesion & Adhesion cohesion- attractive force between two particles that are the same adhesion- attractive force between two unlike substances capillarity- upward movement of water molecules through narrow tubes
3-2 Objectives • Define organic compound and name three elements often found in organic compounds. • Explain why carbon forms so many different compounds. • Define functional group and explain its significance. • Compare a condensation reaction with hyrdrolysis.
Organic Compounds Substances that contain the element carbon. May be bonded to other elements such as: • hydrogen • oxygen • nitrogen • other carbon atoms
Functional Group clusters of atoms that influence the properties of the molecule the compose. alcohol- organic compound with a hydroxyl group (-OH)
Large Carbon Molecules monomer- simple carbon molecules polymer- repeated, linked units of monomers
Reactions condensation rxn- monomers link to form polymers hydrolysis- breakdown of complex molecules
ATP adenosine triphosphate- compound that contains a large amount of energy
3-3 Objectives • Define monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide, and discuss their significance to organisms. • Compare the structures of the various types of proteins. • Relate the structure of lipids to their functions. • List two essential functions of nucleic acids.
Classes of Organic Compounds • carbohydrates • lipids • proteins • nucleic acids
Carbohydrates compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a ratio of 2 hydrogen atoms to 1 oxygen atom
Carbohydrates monosaccharide- monomer of a carbohydrate disaccharide- a double sugar formed from a condensation rxn of two monosaccharides polysaccharide- molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides
Proteins organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
Amino Acids monomer building blocks of proteins 20 different types
Dipeptides and Polypeptides dipeptide- two amino acids sharing a covalent bond as a result of a condensation rxn polypeptide- long chain of amino acids
Enzymes organic molecules that act as catalysts most are proteins substrate- reactant being catalyzed
Lipids large, nonpolar molecules that do not dissolve in water higher ratio of carbon and hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms than carbohydrates store energy efficiently
Fatty Acids unbranched carbon chains that mke up most lipids contains a long straight carbon chain with a carboxyl group (-COOH) attached at one end hydrophilic- water loving hydrophobic- water fearing
Classes of Lipids triglyceride- composed of three molecules of fatty acid joined to one molecule of alcohol glycerol phospholipids- have two fatty acids joind by a molecule of glycerol wax- long fatty-acid chain joind to a long alcohol change
Steroid a lipid composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them many hormones are steroid compounds i.e. cholesterol or testosterone
Nucleic Acids large, complex organic molecules that store information ribonucleic acid (RNA)- stores and transfers information for making proteins nucleotides- linked monomers that make up DNA and RNA