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Implementing Hard Drives

Implementing Hard Drives

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Implementing Hard Drives

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  1. Implementing Hard Drives

  2. Partitioning and Formatting Process

  3. Bootable Disks • Any removable media that has a bootable OS installed • Floppy, CD-ROM, USB thumb drive • All Windows and Linux installation CDs are bootable

  4. Partitioning and Formatting • With Windows Installation CD • During text portion of install • Can create single partition

  5. Partitioning and Formatting • With Windows Installation CD • Allows you to set the size of the drive • Minimum of 8MB up to size of drive

  6. Partitioning and Formatting • With Windows Installation CD • Can format the drive with a file system • NTFS Quick • NTFS Regular – checks the drive

  7. Partitioning and Formatting • With Windows Installation CD • Can create multiple partitions

  8. PATA Drive Letter Assignments • Primary partition of the: • Primary master drive • Primary slave drive • Secondary master drive • Secondary slave drive • Then all logical drives in the extended partition of the: • Primary master drive • Primary slave drive • Secondary master drive • Secondary slave drive C:D:E:F:

  9. SATA Drive Letter Assignments • Similar to PATA, but based on order set in CMOS • Primary partition of the first drive • Primary partition of the second drive • Primary partition of the third drive • Etc. • All logical drives in extended partition of first drive • All logical drives in extended partition of second drive • All logical drives in extended partition of third drive • Etc.

  10. Disk Management • GUI in Windows 2000,XP and vista • Used to manage partitions • Part of Computer Management • Can be launched directly with diskmgmt.msc Unallocated: 1-Empty space on HD (not Ex not Primary)

  11. Creating a New Partition • Alt-click in Unallocated space and choose New Partition…

  12. New Partition Wizard

  13. Disk Management • Creating a partition in Windows • Pick partition type, size, and assign drive letter • Then choose propitiate format type ( FAT16, FAT32 or NTFS)

  14. Creating a Logical Drive • Once an Extended partition is created, you may create logical drives in it

  15. Dynamic Disks • Dynamic Disks are a new type of storage available since Windows 2000 • Not available in XP Home (avail in XP Pro) • Avail in Server 2000 and 2003 • Can convert basic to dynamic • Converting dynamic to basic • causes all data to be lost • Regular drives are known as basic disks • Dynamic disks are divided into volumes instead of partitions

  16. Dynamic Disks • Spanning Volumes (one hard drive) • D: drive is spanned to include unallocated space • Effect is more space on D: volume C:\ Volume 10 GB D:\ Volume 10 GB 30 GB Unallocated space C:\ Volume 10 GB D:\ Volume 10 GB 30 GB Unallocated space C:\ Volume 10 GB D:\ Volume 40 GB

  17. Dynamic Disks • Extended Volumes (multiple hard drives) • Simple volume spanned across multiple disks • Effect is more space on D: volume C:\ Volume 10 GB D:\ Volume 10 GB New Disk – 80GB C:\ Volume 10 GB D:\ Volume 90 GB

  18. Dynamic Disks • Simple volume like a primary partition • Striped Volume (RAID-0) • Mirrored Volume (RAID-1) • Striped with Parity (RAID-5)

  19. Formatting a Partition • Can do in Windows Explorer • Can do in DiskManagement • But you cannot format current partition or primary partition.

  20. Maintaining and Troubleshooting Hard Drives

  21. ScanDisk and CHKDSK • ScanDisk and CHKDSK check for bad clusters on hard drives • Also checks for invalid file names and tries to fix them • Looks for lost clusters or chains that do not have a filename associated with them and deletes them • Checks the links between parent and child folders • Launched via Error-Checking tools from Windows Explorer

  22. Error-Checking • Can check the drive • Can be set to automatically fix errors • Can scan for andrecover badsectors

  23. Defragmentation • Disk Defragmenter • Consider using regularly (monthly or weekly) • Will slow down system while running • If not done, system may slow down due to fragmentation • Can be scheduled

  24. Disk Cleanup • Allows you to purge system of unneeded files • Files in the Recycle Bin • Temporary Internet Files • Downloaded Program Files • Temporary Files • Allowed us to compress file.

  25. Troubleshooting • Three broad categories • Installation Errors • Data Corruption • Dying Hard Drives

  26. Troubleshooting Installation • Connectivity • Hard drive error • No fixed disks present • HDD controller failure • NO boot device available • Drive not found • Solutions include • Checking the cables to make sure they connected properly • Reseating the hard drive controller (if an expansion card) • Use autodetection in CMOS • Check the jumper settings • Some EIDE drives are incompatible on the same controller

  27. Troubleshooting Installation • CMOS • CMOS configuration mismatch • No boot device available • Drive not found • Missing OS • Solutions • Always run autodetect in CMOS

  28. Troubleshooting Installation • “Trying to recover lost allocation unit” indicates the drive is dying • Partitions • Failing to partition • Invalid drive specification error • Making the wrong size or type of partition • extend partition and you try to install OS • Format • Failing to format • Drive is not accessible • Invalid media type

  29. Troubleshooting Corruption • Data Corruption • Caused by many things such as power surges, accidental shutdowns, viruses, and more • Show up as • File is missing or corrupt • Download location information is damaged • Unable to load file • Cannot find command.com • Error loading operating system • Invalid boot.ini • Try running Error Checking utility

  30. Troubleshooting Installation • Corrupted data on bad sectors • The built-in error correction code (ECC) checks the drive for bad sectors • Disk checkers can be used for fixing problems pertaining to corrupted data

  31. Troubleshooting Dying HD • Dying hard drive • The following sounds indicate a drive about to die • Continuous high-pitched squeal • Series of clacks, a short pause, and then more clacks • Continuous grinding or rumbling • Boot drive issue would show up as “no boot device present” • Second drives simply do not show up

  32. Third Party Partition Tools • Third-party partition tools allow you to create, change, and delete partitions without destroying the data • PowerQuest’s Partition Magic • VCOM’s Partition Commander