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Implementing Hard Drives

Implementing Hard Drives

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Implementing Hard Drives

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  1. Implementing Hard Drives Chapter 1: Part 8

  2. Overview • In this chapter, you will learn to • Explain the partitions available in Windows • Discuss the formatting options • Partition and format a hard drive • Maintain and troubleshoot a hard drive

  3. Hard Drive Partitions

  4. Partitioning • Process of electronically subdividing the physical hard drives • Windows assigns them names such as C: or D: • A hard drive must have at least one partition • Partitioning enables organization of a drive that suits your personal taste • One physical drive • One or more logical partitions

  5. CompTIA A+Essentials Essentials

  6. Basic Disks • Master boot record (MBR) • Small amount of code that takes control of boot process • Looks in partition table for partition holding valid operating system • MBR and partition table stored in boot sector • Only one MBR per disk

  7. Basic Disks • Support up to four partitions • Can have four primary partitions or three primary partitions and one extended partition • Primary partition—bootable • Extended partitions—non-bootable • Can hold multiple logical drives lettered D: to Z:

  8. Primary partitions: Store bootable operating system Disk can have up to four primary partitions Active partition is one currently booted to Only one primary partition can be active at a time Extended partitions: Extended partitions are not bootable Disk can have only one extended partition They can be divided into many logical drives Strength is number of drive letters that can be used, D: to Z: Partitioning

  9. Primary Partitions • Can be used for dual-boot or multi-boot configurations • More than one bootable partition • Third-party tools available to identify primary partitions and provide choices • Partition currently booted to is marked as active partition

  10. Dynamic Disks • New since Windows 2000 (Server and Workstation) • Not available in XP Home Edition • Partitions called simple volumes • No limitation on number of volumes • Added capabilities • RAID 0, 1, 5 on Windows Server products • RAID 0 on Windows desktop products • Extended and spanned volumes • RAID covered in Chapter 9 • Other volumes covered in more depth later in chapter

  11. Other Partitions • Hidden partition • Primary partition hidden from OS • Used to hide a backup copy of OS • Swap partition • Only on Linux and BSD systems • Entire partition that works like page file in Windows

  12. When to Partition • Older OSs required partitioning before installation • Command-line program called FDISK • Windows 2000 and above include partition tool in install program

  13. When to Partition • After installation • Windows 2000 and above use GUI called Disk Management • Third-party tools available: • GParted (Linux tool that works on Windows partitions) • Partition Magic

  14. Hard Drive Formatting • Formatting configures a partition to hold files and folders suitable to the OS • Two major functions of formatting • Creates a file system • Creates a root directory

  15. File Systems • Windows supports three different file systems: • FAT16 (often called just FAT) • FAT32 • NTFS

  16. File Allocation Table (FAT) • File allocation table (FAT)keeps track of the sectors that store the various parts of a file • 16-bit FAT (FAT16) uses 4 hexadecimal digits to number the sectors • 0000 thru FFFF • FAT is like a two-column spreadsheet • Column one numbers the sectors • Column two contains the status of the sector • Bad sectors = FFF7 • Good sectors = 0000 • Format creates the FAT and then writes and reads from each sector to see if it is good

  17. FAT Limitations • 16 bits can address only 64 K (216) sectors • Sector sizes limited to 512 bytes • 64K X 512 bytes = 32 MB max size • Solution was clustering, allowing partition sizes up to 2 GB

  18. Clustering • Clustering combines a set of contiguous sectors and treats them as a single unit • Called a cluster or file allocation unit • Instead of numbering the sectors, clusters were numbered • Allowed partition sizes up to 2 GB • DOS, Windows 3.1, and the first version of Windows 95 all use FAT16 • Newer OSs also support FAT16

  19. How FAT Works • Windows looks for the first cluster marked 0000 (good & available for use) • If the file fits in that cluster, FFFF is put in the status column • If the file is larger than the cluster, Windows finds the next open cluster • That open cluster’s number is put in the first status field to know where to link • Process continues until the file is fully stored • Last cluster’s status field is marked FFFF (end-of-file)

  20. Examples of FAT Storage 1 3 2 4 0000 = Good FFF7 = Bad FFFF = End of File

  21. Fragmentation • Fragmentation occurs when files are spread across drives (not contiguous) • Individual files are broken into pieces that fit into a sector or cluster • The pieces are stored on the hard drive but may not be stored in contiguous clusters • Fragmentation slows down the system during hard drive reads and writes • Programs such as Disk Defragmenter or Speed Disk can be used to defragment files, folders, or both

  22. Fragmented File • Takes longer for system to piece together and can impact performance

  23. Disk Defragmenter • Can defragment disk

  24. FAT32 • FAT32 was introduced with Windows 95 OSR2 (OEM Service Release 2) • Supports partitions up to 2 terabytes • Uses 32 bits to describe each cluster • Allows the use of small clusters • Can still become fragmented

  25. IT Technician CompTIA A+Technician NTFS

  26. NTFS • File system of choice today • Six major improvementsand refinements • Redundancy • Security • Compression • Encryption • Disk quotas • Cluster sizing

  27. NTFS Improvements • NTFS structure • Uses an enhanced file allocation table called the Master File Table (MFT) • NTFS keeps a backup copy in the middle of disk • Security • Provides file and folder access control • Uses Access Control List with permissions • If you’re on the list, you’re granted the specific permission

  28. NTFS Improvements • Compression • Allows files and folders to be compressed to save space • Encrypting file system • Allows files and folders to be encrypted and unreadable to anyone without the key • Files and folders can beencrypted or compressed

  29. NTFS Improvements • Disk quotas • Can control how userscan use space • Set on a per-drive basis • Cluster sizes • Can adjust cluster sizes • Rare to do so • NTFS supports 2 TBpartitions

  30. Partitioning and Formatting Process

  31. Bootable Disks • Any removable media that has a bootable OS installed • Floppy, CD-ROM, USB thumb drive • All Windows and Linux installation CDs are bootable • Common to create bootable media with tools added

  32. Partitioning and Formatting • With Windows installation CD • During text portion of install • Can create single partition

  33. Partitioning and Formatting • With Windows installation CD • Allows you to set the size of the drive • Minimum of 8 MB up to size of drive

  34. Partitioning and Formatting • With Windows installation CD • Can format the drive with a file system • NTFS Quick—not as thorough • NTFS Regular—checks the drive

  35. Partitioning and Formatting • With Windows installation CD • Can create multiple partitions

  36. PATA Drive Letter Assignments • Primary partition of the • Primary master drive • Primary slave drive • Secondary master drive • Secondary slave drive • Then all logical drives in the extended partition of the • Primary master drive • Primary slave drive • Secondary master drive • Secondary slave drive C:D:E:F:

  37. SATA Drive Letter Assignments • Similar to PATA, but based on order set in CMOS • Primary partition of the first drive • Primary partition of the second drive • Primary partition of the third drive • Etc. • All logical drives in extended partition of first drive • All logical drives in extended partition of second drive • All logical drives in extended partition of third drive • Etc.

  38. Disk Management • GUI in Windows 2000 and XP • Used to manage partitions • Part of Computer Management • Can be launched directly with diskmgmt.msc

  39. Creating a New Partition • Right-click in unallocated space and choose New Partition

  40. New Partition Wizard

  41. Disk Management • Creating a partition in Windows • Pick partition type, size, and assign drive letter • < 4 GB can choose FAT, FAT32, or NTFS • 4 GB to 32 GB can choose FAT32 or NTFS • > 32GB can choose only NTFS

  42. Creating a Logical Drive • Once an extended partition is created, you may create logical drives in it

  43. Dynamic Disks • Dynamic disks are a new type of storage available since Windows 2000 • Not available in XP Home (available in XP Pro) • Available in 2000 Server and Server 2003 • Can convert basic to dynamic • Converting dynamic to basic causes all data to be lost • Regular drives are known as basic disks • Dynamic disks are divided into volumes instead of partitions

  44. Dynamic Disks • Spanning volumes (one hard drive) • D: drive is spanned to include unallocated space • Effect is more space on D: volume C:\ Volume 10 GB D:\ Volume 10 GB 30 GB unallocated space C:\ Volume 10 GB D:\ Volume 10 GB 30 GB unallocated space C:\ Volume 10 GB D:\ Volume 40 GB

  45. Dynamic Disks • Extended volumes (multiple hard drives) • Simple volume spanned across multiple disks • Effect is more space on D: volume C:\ Volume 10 GB D:\ Volume 10 GB New disk—80 GB C:\ Volume 10 GB D:\ Volume 90 GB

  46. Dynamic Disks • Simple volume like a primary partition • Striped volume (RAID-0) • Mirrored volume (RAID-1) • Striped with parity (RAID-5) • Desktop products (2000 Pro, XP Pro) • Support RAID 0 • Server products (2000 & Server 2003) • Support RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 5

  47. Mount Points • Your system partition drive (typically C:) may be made dynamic • Cannot be extended or spanned • Can create a mount point on C: • Drive that functions like a folder mounted into another drive • Provides additional storage on a hard drive by creating a folder that is another entire hard drive

  48. Creating Mount Points • Right-click an unallocated space on a dynamic disk and select New Volume • The second screen in the wizard lets you create a mount point instead of another drive letter • Works like folder but appears as disk icon

  49. Formatting a Partition • Can do in Windows Explorer • Can do in DiskManagement

  50. Maintaining and Troubleshooting Hard Drives