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Implementing Hard Drives

Implementing Hard Drives

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Implementing Hard Drives

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  1. Implementing Hard Drives Chapter 12

  2. Overview • In this chapter, you will learn how to • Explain the partitions available in Windows • Discuss hard drive formatting options • Partition and format hard drives • Maintain and troubleshoot hard drives

  3. Hard Drive Partitions

  4. Partitioning • Process of electronically subdividing the physical hard drives • Windows assigns them names such as C: or D: • A hard drive must have at least one partition • Partitioning enables organization of a drive that suits your personal taste • One physical drive • One or more partitions

  5. Essentials Two kinds of partitions: Basic Disks Older style Readable by other utilities Dynamic Disks Proprietary Microsoft style CompTIA A+Essentials

  6. Basic Disks • Master boot record (MBR) • Small amount of code that takes control of boot process • Partition table • MBR looks in partition table for partition holding valid operating system • MBR and partition table stored in boot sector • Only one MBR per disk

  7. Basic Disks (continued) • Support up to four partitions • Can have four primary partitions or three primary partitions and one extended partition • Primary partition—can be bootable • Stores the OS • Uses a drive letter such as C: • Active partition • A partition must be made active to be bootable • Extended partitions—non-bootable • Can hold multiple logical drives lettered D: to Z: • These logical drives can also be mounted as folders with names

  8. Partitioning Primary partitions: • Store bootable operating system(s) • Disk can have up to four primary partitions • Active partition is one currently booted to • Only one primary partition can be active at a time Extended partitions: • Extended partitions are not bootable • Disk can have only one extended partition • They can be divided into many logical drives • Strength is number of drive letters that can be used, D: to Z:

  9. Dynamic Disks • Introduced with Windows 2000 (Server and Workstation) • Not available in XP Home Edition, Vista Basic, or Vista Home Premium • Partitions called volumes • No limitation on number of volumes • Added capabilities • Spanned volumes • RAID 0, 1, 5 on Windows Server products • RAID 0 on Windows desktop products • RAID covered in Chapter 11 • Other volumes covered in more depth later in chapter

  10. Other Partitions • Hidden partition • Primary partition hidden from OS • Used to hide a backup copy of OS • Swap partition • Only on Linux and BSD systems • Entire partition that works like page file in Windows

  11. When to Partition • Older OSs required partitioning before installation • Command-line program called FDISK • Windows 2000/XP and Vista/7 include partition tool in install program

  12. When to Partition (continued) • After installation • Windows uses GUI called Disk Management • Third-party tools available • GParted (Linux tool that works on Windows partitions) • Partition Magic

  13. Hard Drive Formatting • Formatting configures a partition to hold files and folders suitable to the OS • Two major functions of formatting • Creates a file system • Creates a root directory

  14. File Systems • Windows supports three different file systems • FAT (often called FAT16) • FAT32 • NTFS

  15. File Allocation Table (FAT) • File allocation table (FAT)keeps track of the sectors that store the various parts of a file • 16-bit FAT (FAT16) uses 4 hexadecimal digits to number the sectors • 0000 thru FFFF • FAT is like a two-column spreadsheet • Column one numbers the sectors • Column two contains the status of the sector • Bad sectors = FFF7 • Good sectors = 0000 • Format creates the FAT and then writes to and reads from each sector to see if it is good

  16. FAT Limitations • 16 bits can address only 64 K (216) sectors • Sector sizes limited to 512 bytes • 64 K × 512 bytes = 32 MB max. size in early drives • What to do to increase capacity? • Solution was clustering, enabling partition sizes up to 2 GB

  17. Clustering • Clustering combines a set of contiguous sectors and treats them as a single unit • Called a cluster or file allocation unit • Instead of numbering the sectors, clusters were numbered • Allowed partition sizes up to 2 GB • Size of cluster increases with the size of the partition • See chart on p. 376

  18. How FAT Works • Windows looks for the first cluster marked 0000 (good and available) • If the file fits in that cluster, FFFF is put in the status column • If the file is larger than the cluster, Windows finds the next open cluster • That open cluster’s number is put in the first status field to know where to link • Process continues until the file is fully stored • Last cluster’s status field is marked FFFF (end-of-file)

  19. Examples of FAT Storage 1 3 2 4 0000 = Good FFF7 = Bad FFFF = End of File

  20. Fragmentation • Fragmentation occurs when files are spread across clusters (not contiguous) • Individual files are broken into pieces that fit into a sector or cluster • The pieces are stored on the hard drive but may not be stored in contiguous clusters • Fragmentation slows down the system during hard drive reads and writes • Programs such as Disk Defragmenter can be used to defragment files, folders, or both

  21. Fragmented File • Takes longer for system to piece together and can impact performance

  22. Disk Defragmenter • Can defragment disk

  23. FAT32 • FAT32 was introduced with Windows 95 OSR2 (OEM Service Release 2) • Supports partitions up to 2 terabytes • Uses 32 bits to describe each cluster • Allows the use of small clusters • See chart on p. 380 • Can still become fragmented

  24. CompTIA A+Practical Application NTFS

  25. NTFS • File system of choice today • Six major improvementsand refinements • Redundancy • Security • Compression • Encryption • Disk quotas • Cluster sizing

  26. NTFS Improvements • NTFS structure provides redundancy • Uses an enhanced file allocation table called the Master File Table (MFT) • NTFS keeps a backup copy in the middle of the disk • Security • Provides file and folder access control • Uses access control list (ACL) to restrict or grant access

  27. NTFS Improvements (continued) • Compression • Enables files and folders to be compressed to save space • Encrypting file system (EFS) • Enables files and folders to be encrypted and unreadable to anyone without the key • Essentially has integratedsecurity • Files and folders can beencrypted or compressed

  28. NTFS Improvements (continued) • Disk quotas • Can control how userscan use space • Set on a per-drive basis • Cluster sizes • Can adjust cluster sizes • Rare to do so • NTFS supports 16-TBminus 64 KB partitions • MBR limited to 2 TB so have to go to dynamic disk for full capacity

  29. Partitioning and Formatting Process

  30. Bootable Disks • Any removable media that has a bootable OS installed • Floppy, CD-ROM, USB thumb drive • All Windows and Linux installation CDs are bootable • Common to create bootable media with tools added

  31. Partitioning and Formatting • With Windows XP installation CD • During text portion of install • Can create one or more partitions

  32. Partitioning and Formatting (continued) • With Windows XP installation CD • Enables you to set the size of the drive • Minimum of 8 MB up to size of drive

  33. Partitioning and Formatting (continued) • With Windows XP installation CD • Can format the drive with a file system • NTFS Quick—not as thorough • NTFS Regular—checks the drive

  34. Partitioning and Formatting (continued) • With Windows XP installation CD • Can create multiple partitions

  35. With the Windows Vista DVD Follow the screens No need to put in product key when prompted initially Every version of Vista is on the installation disc The product keydetermines installationversion Partitioning and Formatting (continued)

  36. With the Windows Vista DVD Full drive selected by default Click the Drive options (advanced) button to get options for creating smaller partitions You can resize Partitioning and Formatting (continued)

  37. Digression 101: Install the OS Can't play with partitioning without loading Windows So, time to load Windows ATAPI optical drive installed on SATA controller Bootable Windows CD-ROM Adjust boot order in CMOS to make optical drive first Boot to the CD Toast any existing partition(s) on the hard drive Make a new partition of a modest size, such as 20 GB Follow the prompts and accept default settings to install Windows

  38. Disk Management • GUI tool in Windows • Used to manage partitions • In Computer Management in Administrative Tools • Can be launched directly with diskmgmt.msc

  39. Disk Initialization All drives must be initialized before use Right-click disk in Disk Management and select Initialize Status Indicator Unallocated = unpartitioned space Healthy = just what it sounds like Active = potentially bootable partition Foreign = newly connected dynamic disk Formatting = just what it sounds like Failed = big trouble

  40. Creating a New Partition • Right-click in unallocated space and choose New Partition

  41. New Partition Wizard

  42. Disk Management • Creating a partition in Windows • Pick partition type, size, and assign drive letter • < 4 GB can choose FAT, FAT32, or NTFS • 4 GB to 32 GB can choose FAT32 or NTFS • > 32 GB can choose only NTFS

  43. Creating a Logical Drive • Once an extended partition is created, you may create logical drives in it

  44. Dynamic Disks • Dynamic disks are a type of storage • Not available in all versions of Windows • Can convert basic to dynamic • Converting dynamic to basic causes all data to be lost • Regular drives are known as basic disks • Dynamic disks are divided into volumes instead of partitions • Home versions of Windows XP and Vista do not support dynamic disks

  45. Dynamic Disks (continued) • Simple volumes (single hard drive) C:\ Volume 10 GB D:\ Volume 10 GB

  46. Dynamic Disks (continued) • Spanned volume (multiple hard drives) • Simple volume spanned across multiple disks • Effect is more space on E: volume D:\ Volume 10 GB E:\ Volume 10 GB New disk—80 GB D:\ Volume 10 GB E:\ Volume 90 GB

  47. Dynamic Disks (continued) • Extending a volume (one hard drive) • E: volume is extended to include unallocated space • Effect is more space on E: volume D:\ Volume 10 GB E:\ Volume 10 GB 30 GB unallocated space D:\ Volume 10 GB E:\ Volume 10 GB 30 GB unallocated space D:\ Volume 10 GB E:\ Volume 40 GB

  48. Dynamic Disks (continued) • Simple volume like a primary partition • Striped volume (RAID-0) • Mirrored volume (RAID-1) • Striped with parity (RAID-5) • Desktop products (2000 Pro, XP Pro) • Support RAID 0 • Server products (2000 & Server 2003) • Support RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 5

  49. Mount Points • Your system partition drive (typically C:) may be made dynamic • Cannot be extended or spanned • Can create a mount point on C: or other partition • Drive that functions like a folder mounted into another drive • Provides additional storage on a hard drive by creating a folder that holds another entire partition • Partition or volume getting the mount point does not have to be dynamic

  50. Creating Mount Points • Right-click an unallocated space on a dynamic disk and select New Volume • The second screen in the wizard lets you create a mount point instead of another drive letter • Works like folder but appears as disk icon