Rocks, Rocks and More Rocks! Igneous – “FIRE ROCKS” (for now)
Extrusive Igneous Rocks • Notes: Extrusive Igneous Rocks form when lava erupts from a volcano or “bubbles up” from tectonic plates moving apart - onto Earth’s surface. Ex: Basalt – the most common extrusive rock on Earth; forms most of Earth’s ocean floor. Ex: Obsidian – black volcanic glass
Igneous Rocks • Earth's Most Abundant Bedrock: Basalt Basalt forms more of Earth's surface than any other rock type. Most areas in ocean basins are basalt. May be on land from lava flows, too.
Igneous Rock - Obsidian Obsidian was used to make knives, arrow heads, spear points, scrapers and many other weapons and tools
How igneous rocks form… Extrusive When a volcano erupts or when magma bubbles to the surface Intrusive when magma cools slowly inside earth
Intrusive Igneous Rocks • Notes: forms when magma hardens beneath Earth’s surface (INSIDE). Ex: Granite – the most abundantintrusive rock on Earth’s continents. Forms the core of many mountain ranges. Ex: Porphyry- looks like jello w/fruit inside it
Intrusive Igneous Rocks • Granite is used to make many objects Granite is also well-known from its many world-famous natural exposures. These include: Stone Mountain, GA; Mount Rushmore, SD
Intrusive Igneous Rock Porphyry
Igneous Rocks • Notes: Texture – fine grained Rapidly cooling lava forms a fine-grained rock with small crystals. Ex: Basalt - crystals too small to be seen without a microscope. Ex: Obsidian –smooth, shiny texture like thick glass & cooled without forming crystals “Volcanic Glass”
Igneous Rocks • Obsidian Obsidian on the side of a volcano
Igneous Rocks • Notes: Texture: coarse-grained Slowly cooling magma forms coarse-grained rock with large crystals Ex: granite and porphyry
Igneous Rocks – Mineral Composition • Notes: When magma is high in silica light-colored rocks form - like granite. When lava is low in silica dark-colored rocks form - like basalt
Uses of Igneous Rock • Notes: • Granite – Statues, Bridges and old public buildings, Paving streets with cobblestone, floors, kitchen countertops (thin polished sheets of Granite)
Uses of Igneous Rock • Basalt - Gravel for construction • Obsidian - Sharp tools for cutting and scraping (Native Am!), Starting vegetable gardens (fertilizer) – it’s called Perlite, which is formed from heating Obsidian
Pumice is cool! It can float! • Pumice – used for cleaning and polishing
Uses of Igneous Rock • Statues, Public Buildings - Granite
Uses of Igneous Rocks • Cobblestone streets, kitchen countertops – Granite
Questions… • What processes form Igneous Rocks? • How are the 2 types of Igneous Rock different? • How can we use Igneous Rocks? How have they been used in the past? • Can you describe the most common Intrusive Ign. Rock? Where is it commonly found? • Can you describe the most abundant Extrusive Ign. Rock? What area on Earth is mostly made of this type?
Project reminder… • Please make sure you are working on your Igneous Rock Paper and Illustration. Directions are on my webpage. Make sure you turn in your copy of the directions with your project! Thanks! • I will take questions in class everyday until Tues. because it is due on Wed when you come in class.