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Enzymes

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Enzymes

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  1. Enzymes

  2. Enzymes are large biological molecules that are responsible for the thousands of metabolic processes that sustain life. •  They are: • highly selective catalysts • greatly accelerating rate of metabolic reactions • greatly decrease the energy needed for a reaction • Mostly proteins, although some catalytic RNA molecules have been identified.

  3. Structure •  Enzymes are a 3-D structure that are highly complex. • Their structure is very important because they are specific to their substrates. • Enzyme origins: • Listen, will be important when we get to genetics.

  4. Lock and Key Model • Enzyme, Substrate, Product

  5. Amylase • Foods with Maltose • Sweet potatoes • Grain Cereals • Pears • McDonald Hotcakes • Catsup [Ketchup] • Tootsies rolls Lock and Key

  6. Energy savers • Like all catalysts, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy • this dramatically increasing the rate of the reaction. • Most enzyme reaction rates are millions of times faster than those of comparable un-catalyzed reactions. • As with all catalysts, enzymes are not consumed by the reactions they catalyze • However, enzymes do differ from most other catalysts in that they are highly specific for their substrates. • Enzymes are known to catalyze about 4,000 biochemical reactions.

  7. Lowers activation energy

  8. Enzyme activity can be affected by: • Other molecules • Inhibitors • Activators • Many drugs and poisons are enzyme inhibitors • Temperature • Pressure • Chemical environment (pH) • Concentration of substrate

  9. Pressure • How could pressure effect enzymes? • Under pressure, dun dundundadi dun dum!

  10. Temperature

  11. pH

  12. Substrate concentration

  13. Review

  14. The experiment • What’s the enzyme? • What’s the substrate? • What’s the product?

  15. The experiment • What’s the enzyme? • Catalase • What’s the substrate? • H2O2 • What’s the product? • H20 + O2

  16. The Experiment • Basic Idea???? • How would you test pH’s affect on catalase? • How would you test temperatures effect on catalase? • How would you test for different amounts of substrate?

  17. The Experiment • Test for pH • Keep the concentration of yeast the same but make a range of pH to test. • Test for temperature • Keep the concentration of yeast the same but make a range of temperatures. • Substrate concentration • Change the concentration of the substrate.

  18. BTW, inhibitors