Parts of a Story Finding Meaning
Parts of a StoryAnalogy: House • FOUNDATION=Setting - provides a foundation for the story by describing the time and place of the action • DOOR=Characters - come in and meet the people who live here—they are the people, animals, or creatures carrying out the action • WINDOW=Point of View - the vantage point from which the story is told—is the story being told from the inside or out? • ROOFLINE=Plot - the pattern of events in the story • CHIMNEY=Theme - the main message that filters throughout the story
Theme THEME PLOT POINT OF VIEW CHARACTERS SETTING
Setting and Plot SETTING—Not just a simple time and place Can be SYMBOLICALLY significant. Can be HISTORICALLY significant. PLOT Climax—Not always in the middle of action; it is the major turning point. Resolution—Sometimes the story is left unresolved Can the Climax and Resolution be one and the same? CLIMAX Falling Action/Resolution Rising Action
PLOT • EXPOSITION—background info (setting) • RISING ACTION • CLIMAX— “apex”; turning point; things change • Rocky movies: last big fight; punch that changes the fight • FALLING ACTION/RESOLUTION—how the story comes to an end
Characterization Terms to Know: Protagonist—main character Antagonist—character pitted against main character Flat/Static vs. Dynamic/Round Flat/Static—unchanging Dynamic/Round—changing/full. Foil—mirror image of main character.
Point of View Third Person Point of View (HE, SHE, THEY) Here the narrator does not participate in the action of the story as one of the characters, but lets us know exactly how the characters feel. We learn about the characters through this outside voice. A narrator who knows everything about all the characters is all knowing, or omniscient. A narrator whose knowledge is limited to one character, either major or minor, has a limited omniscient point of view. First Person Point of View (I) In the first person point of view, the narrator does participate in the action of the story. When reading stories in the first person, we need to realize that what the narrator is recounting might not be the objective truth. We should question the trustworthiness of the accounting.
Point of View As you read a piece of fiction think about these things: How does the point of view affect your responses to the characters? How is your response influenced by how much the narrator knows and how objective he or she is? First person narrators are not always trustworthy. It is up to you to determine what is the truth and what is not.
THEME • The main idea or underlying meaning of a literary work. • Themes may be major or minor. A major theme is an idea the author returns to time and again. It becomes one of the most important ideas in the story. Minor themes are ideas that may appear from time to time. • It is important to recognize the difference between the theme and subject. The subject is the topic on which an author has chosen to write. The theme, however, makes some statement about or expresses some opinion on that topic. • subject may be war • theme = “War is useless.” • Write theme in a complete, universal statement. http://www.orangeusd.k12.ca.us/yorba/literary_elements.htm#THEME
THEME cont. Four ways in which an author can express themes are as follows: 1. By sharing feelings of the main character you also share the ideas that go through his mind. 2. Presented in thoughts and conversations. Authors put words in their character’s mouths only for good reasons. Look for thoughts that are repeated throughout the story. 3. Themes are suggested through the characters. The main character usually illustrates the most important theme of the story. A good way to get at this theme is to ask yourself the question, what does the main character learn in the course of the story? 4. The actions or events in the story are used to suggest theme. In other words, how will the action express an idea or theme?