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Democracy and Regimes

Democracy and Regimes

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Democracy and Regimes

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  1. Democracy and Regimes Definitions, Transitions and Consolidations

  2. Regime Types • Democratic • Authoritarian • Totalitarian • Post-Totalitarian • Sultanic

  3. Democratic • A system or regime type in which the ultimate political authority is vested with the citizenry • Examples: USA, Canada, Sri Lanka

  4. Distribution

  5. Distribution amongst these

  6. Number of States (over time)

  7. World Population (over time)

  8. Authoritarian • Ruled by an elite group that uses repressive means to stay in power. • The state will generally ignore the actions of an individual unless it is perceived to be a direct challenge to the state. • Examples: Myanmar, Cuba, Egypt

  9. Juntas

  10. Totalitarian • The state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. • Examples: USSR (esp. under Josef Stalin), Nazi Germany, Romania under Nicolae Ceauşescu

  11. Post-Totalitarian • After the fall of Totalitarianism, government with absent or weak institutions and lacking secondary associations • Examples: Russia, Ukraine and Romania in the 1990s

  12. Sultanic • All individuals, groups and institutions are permanently subject to the unpredictable and despotic intervention of the sultan, and thus all pluralism is precarious • Examples: Saudi Arabia, Iraq under Saddam Hussein, Zaire under Mobutu Sese Seko

  13. Dimensions of Regimes • Pluralism • Mobilization • Charismatic Leadership • Pervasive Ideology

  14. Regime-Type Distribution

  15. Polyarchy • Robert Dahl’s ideal of democracy • A system where the government is completely responsive to citizens and citizens are political equals.

  16. Two basic requirements for a functional democracy • Participation • Contestation • Polyarchy, Competitive Oligarchy, Closed Hegemony, Inclusive Hegemony

  17. Contestation with Narrow Franchise • Whig Britain, esp. prior to 1832 • USA, prior to 1828 • Ancient Greece

  18. Expansion of Franchise: UK • 1258: Barons • 1341: Aristocrats are represented • 1832: from 10% to 20% of 21+ males • 1867: 40% of 21+ males • 1884: 60% of 21+ males • 1918: 100% of 21+ males / 80% of 21+ females • 1928: 100% of 21+ males / 100% of 21+ females • 1948: ended extra vote • 1969: voting age reduced to 18

  19. Expansion of Franchise: USA • 1788: first election (under Constitution of 1787) • 1810: 10 % of males • 1828: 16% of males • 1870: former slaves/free blacks can vote • 1920: women can vote at 21 • 1924: Native Americans can vote • 1971: age requirement reduced to 18

  20. Female Suffrage

  21. Participatory Non-Democracies • P.R. China • Saddam Hussein Iraq • USSR

  22. What to do with new classes? • Let the strongest emerge • Pluralism • Corporativism

  23. American Pluralism

  24. Mexican Corporativism

  25. Democratization

  26. Modernization Theory

  27. Civil Society • What • View of autocrats

  28. Marxian Class-Conflict Social change was often the Industrial Revolution and specifically the Peasant Question. Relevant players: Crown, Aristos, Bourg., Proletariat, Peasants.

  29. Moore: Democratic development as a struggle to: • Check arbitrary rulers • Replace arbitrary rules with rational ones • Obtain a role in rule making

  30. Moore: Conditions for democratic development • The Right Balance • The Right Agriculture • The Right Coalition • Revolutionary break with the past

  31. UK advantages • Strong and independent parliament • No serious peasant problem • Commercial and industrial interests assert themselves • Growing industrial capitalism

  32. Summary of Moore

  33. Samuel Huntington’s Three Waves of Democratization • First, long wave – 1828-1926 • First reverse wave – 1922-1942 • Second, short wave – 1943-1962 • Second reverse wave – 1958-1975 • Third Wave – 1974-

  34. Which countries (Huntington)

  35. Explanations for democratization • High overall level of economic wealth • Relatively equal distribution of income and/or wealth • A market economy • Economic development and social modernization • A feudal aristocracy at some point in history • The absence of feudalism in society

  36. Explanations for democratization • A strong bourgeoisie (capitalist class) • A strong middle class • High levels of literacy and education • Protestantism • Social pluralism • Development of political contestation prior to expansion of franchise

  37. Explanations for democratization • Democratic authority structures within social groups • Low levels of civil violence • Low levels of political polarization and extremism • Political leaders committed to democracy • Experience as a British colony • Traditions of toleration and compromise

  38. Explanations for democratization • Occupation by a pro-democratic foreign power • Influence by a pro-democratic foreign power • Elite desire to emulate democratic states

  39. Explanations for democratization • Traditions of respect for rule of law and individual rights • Communal homogeneity or communal heterogeneity • Consensus on political and social values or absence thereof

  40. Factors of the Reverse Waves • Weak democratic values • Economic crisis • Polarization • Breakdown of law & order by insurgency/terrorism • Intervention/conquest by non-democratic foreign government • Demonstration effect

  41. Responsiveness vs. Stability

  42. Factors of the Third Wave • Deepening legitimacy problems • Global economic growth • Liberation Theology • Policies of external actors • Snowballing (demonstration) effect

  43. Structure and Agency • Structural factors • Agency

  44. Consolidation • Structural conditions may bring democracy • Elite settlement is often necessary to consolidate it

  45. Regime-Type Instability: Argentina • 1958 – Democratic • 1962 – Military (Authoritarian) • 1963 – Democratic • 1966 - Military (Authoritarian) • 1973 – Democratic

  46. Regime-Type Instability: Argentina • 1976 - Military (Authoritarian) • 1983 – Democratic • 1989 – Peronist (Authoritarian) • 1995 – Peronist (Consociational Democratic) • 1999 – Peronist (Competitive Democratic)