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Tibet 西藏

Tibet 西藏

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Tibet 西藏

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  1. Tibet西藏 • Tibet is important issue in US-China relations because of support for Dalai Lama (DL) among US politicians 因為美國的政治家中有人支持達賴喇嘛, 西藏是中美關係中的重要問題 • China is very sensitive about Tibet Question because it involves territory and the DL urges quasi-independence for Tibet, while many followers seek complete independence 中國對西藏問題十分敏感, 不僅因為它涉及到領土問題, 而且因為達賴喇嘛要求西藏半獨立, 他的許多追隨者謀求完全的獨立

  2. No country denies that Tibet is part of China. Many members of US Congress do. Tibet Lobby and converts to Buddhism effective in mobilizing support for DL 沒有國家否認西藏是中國的一部份. 許多美國國會成員則相反. 西藏派議員及佛教徒有實力動員支持達賴喇嘛 • After US-China ties re-established, Congress first spoke out about Tibet in 1985. Urged China to negotiate 美中建交後, 國會首次在1985年談及西藏. 要求中國商談

  3. Many pro-exile resolutions since then; in 1991, Congress declared Tibet an “occupied country,” endorsed Tibetan independence 許多支持流亡者的議案始自那時; 1991年, 國會宣稱西藏是一個“被占領的國家”并且承認西藏獨立 • In 1995, Congress proposed that US establish "diplomatic relations" with DL's government-in-exile 1995年, 國會建議美國與達賴喇嘛流亡政府建立 “外交關係”

  4. In 1998, US Special Coordinator for Tibet Appointed by President with a law passed by Congress 1998年, 根據國會通過的一項法律的許可, 總統為西藏任命了專門協調人 • DL received each year by Congress and President PRC accuses US of backing "splittist forces" 達賴每年會見總統和國會. 中國譴責美國支持 “分裂勢力” • DL sent representatives to Beijing and to Tibetan areas in 2002, 2003 and 2004, but no indication yet that formal negotiations will begin. 2002, 2003 和2004年,達賴派代表前往北京和西藏地區, 但這并不表明正式的談判即將開始

  5. 570 A.D., Namri Songtsen founds large kingdom in central Tibet 紀元570年, Namri Songsten 在西藏(吐蕃) 中部建立了大王國 • 632 A.D. Songtsen Gampo wars with China. Given Princess Wencheng, who plays role in taking Buddhism to Tibet 紀元632年,松藏干布與中國有戰爭. 文成公主入藏和親, 她將佛教帶到西藏 • 763 A.D. Tibetans take Chang'an in war with Tang 紀元763年, 藏人在與唐的戰爭中佔據長安

  6. 9th-13th centuries, Tibetan state disintegrates 9至13世紀, 西藏(吐蕃)政權瓦解 • 1207, Tibetans submit to Mongols. 1207年, 藏人臣服于蒙古 • 1279, Tibet becomes part of Yuan dynasty empire 1279年, 西藏成為元朝帝國的一部份

  7. 1368, Yuan collapses, Tibet regains independence, but pays tribute to Ming and has ties with Mongol kings 1368年, 元滅亡, 西藏重歸獨立, 但向明朝進貢并與蒙古王有聯系 • 16th Century Mongol prince gives title Dalai ("great ocean") Lama to head of Yellow Hat sect of Tibetan monks; DL came to reside in Lhasa 16世紀, 蒙古太子給黃教僧人領袖予”達賴(大海)喇嘛”的封號; 達賴住進拉薩 • 2d highest Tibetan monk given title Panchen Lama (great scholar) and heads monastery of Tashilhunpo in Xigaze 給予第二高的藏人僧侶以”班襌(大學者) 喇嘛”的封號并主持日喀則的扎什倫布寺

  8. 1750, Qing intervenes to protect Tibet against Western Mongols. DL becomes Qing protector of Tibet 1750年, 清朝介入并在與蒙古的對抗中保護西藏. 達賴成為清朝在西藏的保護人 • Imperial residents (amban) and garrison sent to Lhasa, but Chinese law not applied 派駐藏大臣及駐軍往拉薩, 但不實行中國法律 • 1893, Qing allows British to trade at Tibet border 1893年, 清允許英國在西藏邊境做生意

  9. 1904, British invade Tibet, capture Lhasa & retreat 1904年, 英國侵略西藏, 奪取拉薩又撤出 • DL accepts British terms: to exclude all other powers from Tibet. China disagrees. 達賴接受英國的條款: 將所有其它勢力都排除出西藏. 中國拒絕 • 1906 Anglo-Chinese Convention recognizes China's exclusive rights in Tibet 1906年, 中英會議承認中國在西藏的最高權力

  10. Qing incorporates eastern Tibet into Sichuan and other provinces; sends army to Lhasa 清朝將西藏東部劃入四川及其它省; 派兵到拉薩 • 1911-1913, DL organizes army to expel Chinese from Tibet. DL proclaims self as ruler 1911至1913年, 達賴組織軍隊將中國人逐出西藏. 達賴宣布自己是統治者 • 1913-1914, Simla Conference; China rejects British formula of autonomous Tibet under Chinese suzerainty; Tibetan representative accepts this 1913至1914年, 西姆拉會議; 中國拒絕英國提出的在以中國為宗主國條件下的西藏自治; 西藏代表接受這建議

  11. No Chinese officials in Tibet from 1913-1933; Tibet Office of Guomindang regime in Lhasa from 1933 to 1949 1913至1933年, 沒有中國官員駐守西藏; 從1933至1949年國民黨在拉薩的西藏辦公室 • New DL installed in 1940; new Panchen installed in 1949; Guomindang had some role 新的達賴于1940年坐床(就任), 新的班襌于1949年坐床; 國民黨起了一些作用 • 1950-1951, PLA captures Tibetan army; 17-Point Agreement between DL and PR signed 1950至1951年, 解放軍俘虜了藏軍; 達賴與中國簽署了《17條協議》

  12. DL and traditional system to be maintained. Tibet had kind of feudal system, but image of Shangri-La in West 達賴及傳統的制度得以保留. 西藏有的是一種封建制度, 但被西方視為香格里拉 • Many monks and officials in Tibet hostile to Chinese presence. Sought to keep theocratic (monk-run) state 許多西藏僧人及官員對中國人懷有敵意. 竭力保持政教合一的政權 • Few reforms in 1951-1959. Secret organization formed to expel Chinese. 1951至1959年少有改革, 成立秘密組織驅逐中國人

  13. From 1955, socialist transformation of Tibetan-inhabited areas in Sichuan (Kham) and other provinces 自1955年, 在四川及其它藏族地區(康區)開展社會主義改造 • Major revolt by Khamba; supported by US CIA & Taiwan; many Khambas enter central Tibet 主要由康巴發動的叛亂; 得到美國中央情報局及台灣的支持; 許多康巴進入西藏中部 • 1959, DL asked to suppress Khambas; flees to India with 100,000 followers 1959年, 要求達賴鎮壓康巴; 與十萬追隨者逃往印度

  14. Tibetan government dissolved; many monks sent home; reforms carried out 解散西藏政府; 許多僧侶譴散回家; 實施改革 • Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) proclaimed in 1965 1965年西藏自治區成立 • 1966-1970, destruction of temples and monastaries by Red Guards out to combat the "four olds" (old ideas, culture, customs, habits). Thousands killed in revolts. Tibetans forced to grow wheat 1966至1970年, 寺廟及庵院被紅衛兵當作”四舊(舊的思想, 文化, 風俗, 習慣)” 遭到破壞. 上千人在叛亂中喪生. 迫藏人種小麥

  15. 1979-1980, first visit to Tibet by DL's delegates; many PRC policies in Tibet liberalized 1979至1980年, 達賴的代表首次訪問西藏. 許多中國開放西藏的政策 • Hu Yaobang and Wan Li tour Tibet; Ren Rong removed as CCP Party Secretary; communes dissolved 胡耀邦和萬里訪問西藏; Ren Rong調任黨的書記; 公社解散 • Standard of living of Tibetans rises; more cultural and religious freedom; fewer Han cadres in Tibet 藏族生活水平提高; 更多的文化和宗教自由; 少量漢族幹部在西藏工作

  16. New construction projects began; tourism expanded; many exiles return for visit 開始新的建設計劃; 旅遊業有了發展; 流亡份子回去訪問 • Negotiations about negotiations proceed. 1982, DL's delegation sent to Beijing 關於談判程序的談判. 1982年, 達賴的代表團扺北京 • Presses to reunite all Tibetan areas and have PLA withdraw rejects discussing cultural issues first 要求重組所有藏族地區及撤出解放軍, 拒絕先談文化問題

  17. 1984, another attempt at negotiations fails 1984年, 另一輪談判努力失敗 • Tibetan Youth Association particularly against compromise, but improvement in conditions in Tibet makes it hard for exiles to mobilize Tibetans inside Tibet 藏人青年協會特別反對和解, 但西藏條件的改善令流亡份子難以在西藏內部發動藏人 • 1986-1987, exiles and friends in West work out strategy to put pressure on China: Civil disobedience in Tibet; DL to tour world promoting solution without full independence 1986至1987年, 流亡份子及西方朋友制定向中國施壓的策略: 在西藏非暴力扺抗; 達賴週遊列國來推廣不完全獨立的解決辦法

  18. 9/87, DL proposes 5-point program: 1. Tibet as zone of peace 2. no population transfer 3. respect human rights and democratic freedoms 4. protect environment; no nuclear weapons 5. negotiations about future status of Tibet • 87年9月, 達賴提出五點建議: • 1.      西藏作為和平區域 • 2.      無人口遷移 • 3.      尊重人權及民主自由 • 4.      保護環境; 無核武器 • 5.      就未來西藏的地位進行談判

  19. Demonstrations of monks in Tibet; arrests and beatings; riot, including burning and shooting 西藏僧人示威; 逮捕及挨打; 騷亂, 包括焚燒及開槍 • Tibetans bitter about past; don't like "floating population" of Han who come to Tibet 藏族懷恨過去, 不喜歡到西藏來的漢族”盲流” • Han and Hui gradually take over small business in Tibet's cities; dominate construction 漢族及回族逐漸到西藏的城鎮經營小生意; 支配了建築業

  20. Han become majority in most Tibetan cities; many key officials are Han, although 75% of all cadres are Tibetan 漢族在多數的西藏城鎮中佔主要, 許多關鍵性的官員是漢族, 盡管75%的幹部是藏族 • Size of monasteries restricted 寺院的規模受到限制 • 1987 riot deemed victory by exiles; US Congress passed resolution which linked sales of US weapons to China to Tibet issue 1987年騷亂被視為流亡份子的勝利; 美國國會通過決議案將西藏問題與向中國出售武器聯系起來

  21. Monks arrested in 1987 released, except for one; demonstrations about this monk in 1988 1987年被捕的僧人除一人外全部獲釋; 1988年為這僧人示威 • DL made Strasbourg Proposal in 1988: 1. Unite all Tibetans 2. democratic system in Tibet 3. Tibet runs most of its foreign policy 4. Tibet to be demilitarized • 達賴1988年發表斯特拉斯堡建議: • 1.      重組所有藏族 • 2.      在西藏建立民主制度 • 3.      西藏決定其大多數的外交政策 • 4. 西藏非軍事化

  22. Beijing sees Strasbourg Proposal as disguised independence, but say it's willing to negotiate with DL 北京視斯特拉斯堡建議是有掩飾的獨立, 但表示願與達賴談判 • DL refuses any more compromise; PRC then announces that it will be more severe in punishing "splittism" 達賴拒絕再和解; 中國隨后宣布要對”分裂主義” 更嚴厲懲罰 • More demonstrations, including riot of March, 1989. • 更多的示威, 包括1989年3月的騷亂. 許多人喪生

  23. DL given 1989 Nobel Prize for Peace. After June 4th 1989, predicts that CCP would fall in 5-10 years 達賴獲1989年諾貝爾和平獎. 89年六四以後, 預言中共會在5-10年內倒台 • Attempts at negotiations fruitless; broken off in 1993 試圖談判不果; 1993年停止 • PRC won't offer concessions unless DL at least breaks with pro-independence forces 中國不會讓步, 除非達賴與支持獨立的勢力絕裂

  24. US Congress always sides with exiles, although US President states Tibet is part of PRC 美國國會一貫站在流亡份子一方, 盡管美國總統表示西藏是中國的一部份 • In 1998 joint press conference with Clinton, Jiang Zemin states that there can be negotiations if DL publicly states that Tibet and Taiwan are part of PRC 1998年在與克林頓的會談中, 江澤民表示如果達賴公開承認西藏和台灣是中國的一部份就可以談判

  25. By the late 1990s, Dalai Lama had much support from movie stars, singers, and other celebrities. The interest in Buddhism in the West guarantees him a big following. 90年代末, 達賴喇嘛得許多電影明星, 歌星及其他名人支持. 西方對佛教的興趣保證他有很多追隨者 • There is also a lot of political activism about Tibet in the US. For example, Students for a Free Tibet organization has chapters on 400 campuses. 美國還有許多關注西藏的政治行動主義者. 例如, 有一個名為”Students for a Free Tibet” 的組織在400間校園設有支部.

  26. There still have not been any negotiations on the Tibet Question, however, because the 2 parties disagree about: 兩方仍然沒有任何關於西藏問題的商談, 因為它們不同意: • 1. history: the Chinese government wants the Dalai Lama to say that Tibet was part of China before 1950; the Dalai Lama insists that Tibet was always independent. 歷史: 中國政府希望達賴喇嘛表示西藏1950年之前已是中國一部份; 達賴喇嘛堅持西藏一直是獨立的

  27. 2. territory: the Chinese government says it will negotiate about the Tibet Autonomous Region, but the Dalai Lama wants negotiations about all areas inhabited by Tibetans. 領土: 中國政府表示只談西藏自治區, 但達賴喇嘛希望包括所有有西藏人居住的地方 • 3. the political system: the Chinese governments wants to maintain Communist Party rule in Tibet; the Dalai Lama wants “genuine autonomy,” that is a high degree of autonomy, as in Hong Kong, with a liberal democracy. 政治制度: 中國政府希望在西藏維持共產黨執政; 達賴喇嘛希望有”真正的自治” 即有高度自治, 正如香港, 和行自由民主制

  28. US politicians are almost all sympathetic to the Dalai Lama and give him a warm reception when he comes to US. The US administration, however, continues to agree that Tibet is part of China. 美國政治家差不多全都同情達賴喇嘛及當他到美國時給他熱情招待. 但美國行政部則繼續同意西藏是中國一部份之說法 • Tibet issues that most concern US politicians are claimed destruction of Tibetan culture through Han migration, benefits of development in Tibet going to Han, rather than Tibetans and lack of freedom of religion in Tibet. 美國政治家們最為關注的西藏問題在于:漢族遷移對西藏文化的破坏;開發西藏的受益人是漢族而不是西藏人;西藏沒有宗教自由

  29. In 2002, Congress passed Tibet Policy Act that affirms Congress’ stand that Tibet is an “occupied country,” calls upon US to open a consulate in Tibet, treat Tibet as a separate country from China in all US government reports and give several million US dollars yearly to DL’s government-in-exile. 2002年, 國會通過了《西藏政策議案》重申了國會的西藏問題立場, 即西藏是“被占領的國家”, 同時呼吁美國政府在西藏建立領事館, 在所有美國政府的報告中將西藏看作獨立于中國的國家, 同時每年資助達賴流亡政府數百万美元 • China criticizes the US government whenever the Dalai lama is received by US officials, but China may also want the US to persuade the Dalai Lama to be more flexible. 每當有美國官員接待達賴喇嘛, 中國都會評擊美國政府, 但中國亦希望美國可說服達賴喇嘛變得更加靈活

  30. In 2002-2004, Dalai Lama’s representatives visited Tibet and China’s major cities and met with Chinese officials. Also met with PRC officials in Switzerland in 2005. 在2002年到2004年, 達賴喇嘛的代表訪問了西藏和中國其他的主要城市, 還會面了中國的官員.2005年也在瑞士與中國的官員進行了會面. • US government has expressed support for these “talks about talks.” It is unlikely there will be formal negotiations soon, however; nor will US be invited to mediate the dispute. 美國政府表達了對於這些”關與和談的談話”的支持.但在近期進行更正式的談判是不可能,而且美國也不可能被邀請去調解這些紛爭.