Problems of Labor • Low Wages • Easy availability of workers, lead to lower wages • No minimum wage laws
Problems of Labor 2.Working Conditions • Poor lighting, heating, and ventilation • No safety standards • Child labor
Problems of Labor 3. Working Hours • “Sweat Shops” tried to get more production out of workers and forced them to 12- 14 hour days. • Once again the “Bread and Butter Goals”
Haymarket Riot in Chicago • The Haymarket Riot in Chicago in May 1886 killed several people, and resulted in a highly controversial trial followed by executions of four men who may have been innocent. The American labor movement was dealt a severe setback, and the chaotic events resonated for many years.
Knights of Laborhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SteWSnKVhOE Founder/Date: 1869 Members: Craft and Unskilled industrial workers, women & minorities Goals: 8 hour work day
Knights of Labor • At first, the Knights of Labor was a secret organization, its founder was Uriah Stephens. • At first, the Knights of Labor was a secret organization, by the early 1880s, the group had emerged as a national force and had dropped its initial secrecy. They sought to include within their ranks everyone but doctors, bankers, lawyers, liquor producers and gamblers.
Unions • Successes: won 1 major strike • Problems: prejudice, too much attention on political goals
Why did the Knights of Labor attracts a lot of people? • They did not exclude people…
American Federation of Labor • In December of 1886, the same year the Knights of Labor was dealt its fatal blow at Haymarket Square, Gompers met with the leaders of other craft unions to form the American Federation of Labor. • The A.F. of L. was a loose grouping of smaller craft unions, such as the masons' union, the hatmakers' union or Gompers's own cigarmakers' union. Every member of the A.F. of L. was therefore a skilled worker!
American Federation of Labor • Founder/Date: Samual Gompers/1886 Members: Union of unions with a common issue.
American Federation of Labor • Bread and Butter Goals • Higher wages • Better working conditions • Shorter hours
Successes: collective bargaining ---->a group of people negotiating to get something they want…
Problems • Racist attitude
What does “Bread and Butter Goals” mean? • The things you need to survive…
Industrial Workers of the World(IWW) • The driving force behind the I.W.W. was William D. Haywood, the leader of the Western Federation of Miners, which had established a reputation for work stoppages in Colorado mines. • Joining Haywood at the launch of the I.W.W., which he described as the "first continental congress of the working class," were Eugene V. Debs of the Socialist Party and Daniel De Leon of the Socialist Labor Party. Also present were Mother Jones, the "angel of the miners," and Lucy Parsons, whose husband had been executed in the Haymarket affair.
Industrial Workers of the World(IWW) • Founder/Date: 1905/William Haywood Members: Female, black, Mexican, Asian, minorities in general.
Goals • Bread and Butter Goals • Higher wages • Better working conditions • Shorter hours
Successes… • Textile strike in Massachusettes
Problems • Reputation for violence • Faced Discrimation
Industrial Workers of the World(IWW) • Why did the IWW face discrimination? They were a diverse group