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Chapter 3: The Project Management Process Groups

Chapter 3: The Project Management Process Groups

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Chapter 3: The Project Management Process Groups

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  1. Chapter 3: The Project Management Process Groups Information Technology Project Management,Fourth Edition

  2. Learning Objectives • Describe the five project management (PM) process groups, the typical level of activity for each, and the interactions among them. • Understand how the PM process groups relate to the PM knowledge areas. • Discuss how organizations develop information technology PM methodologies to meet their needs. Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  3. Learning Objectives • Apply the PM process groups to manage an information technology project, and understand the contribution that effective project initiation, project planning, project execution, project monitoring and controlling, and project closing make to project success. Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  4. Project Management Process Groups • A process is a series of actions directed toward a particular result. • Project management can be viewed as a number of interlinked processes. • The project management process groups include: • Initiating processes • Planning processes • Executing processes • Monitoring and controlling processes • Closing processes Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  5. Project Management Processes and ITPM Phases Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  6. Initiating Processes • Defining and authorizing a project or project phase • Define the business need for the project, sponsor, project manager Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  7. Planning Processes • Devising and maintaining a workable scheme to ensure that the project address the organization’s needs. • There is no single project plan such as the scope management plan, schedule management plan • Defining each knowledge area as it relates to the project • The work needs to be done • Schedule activities • Cost estimate • Resources to procure Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  8. Executing Processes • Coordinating people and other resources to • carry out the project plans • produce the products, services, or results Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  9. Monitoring and Controlling Processes • Measuring and monitoring progress to ensure that the project team meets the project objectives. • Measure progress against the plans • Common monitoring and controlling process is performance reporting Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  10. Closing Processes • Formalizing acceptance of the project or project phase and ending it efficiently. • Administrative activities are often involved in this process group • Archiving project files • Closing out contracts • Documenting lessons learned • Receiving formal accepatance Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  11. Figure 3-1. Level of Activity and Overlap of Process Groups Over Time Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  12. Mapping the Process Groups to the Knowledge Areas • You can map the main activities of each PM process group into the nine knowledge areas by using the PMBOK® Guide 2004. • Note that there are activities from each knowledge area under the planning process group. • All initiating activities are part of the project integration management knowledge area. Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  13. Table 3-1. Relationships Among Process Groups and Knowledge Areas PMBOK® Guide 2004, p. 69 Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  14. Table 3-1. Relationships Among Process Groups and Knowledge Areas (cont’d) Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  15. Developing an IT Project Management Methodology • Methodology describes how things should be done, and different organizations often have different ways of doing things. • Six Sigma projects and the Rational Unified Process (RUP) framework use project management methodologies. • RUP is an iterative software development process that focuses on team productivity and delivers software best practices to all team members Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  16. Project Initiation • Initiating a project includes recognizing and starting a new project or project phase. • Some organizations use a pre-initiation phase, while others include items such as developing a business case as part of the initiation. • The main goal is to formally select and start off projects. • Key outputs include: • Assigning the project manager. • Identifying key stakeholders. • Completing a business case. • Completing a project charter and getting signatures on it. Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  17. Project Initiation Documents • Business case: See pages 82-85. • Charter: See pages 86-87. • Every organization has its own variations of what documents are required to initiate a project. It’s important to identify the project need, stakeholders, and main goals. Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  18. Project Initiation- Business Case • An analysis of the organizational value, feasibility, costs, benefits, and risks of the project plan. • Not a budget or project plan • To provide senior management with all the information needed to make an informed decision as to whether a specific project should be funded. • Must document the methods & rationale used for quantifying the costs and benefits. Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  19. Project Initiation- Business Case • Attributes of a Good Business Case • Details all possible impacts, costs, benefits • Clearly compares alternatives • Objectively includes all pertinent information • Systematic in terms of summarizing findings Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  20. Project Charter • Project charter is a document that formally recognizes the existence of a project and provides a direction on the project’s objectives and management. • Purpose of the Project Charter • Document the project objectives • Define project infrastructure • Summarize details of project plan • Define roles and responsibilities • Show explicit commitment to project • Set out project control mechanisms Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  21. Project Planning • The main purpose of project planning is to guide execution. • Every knowledge area includes planning information (see Table 3-5 on pages 87-89). • Key outputs included in the JWD project include: • A team contract. • A scope statement. • A work breakdown structure (WBS). • A project schedule, in the form of a Gantt chart with all dependencies and resources entered. • A list of prioritized risks (part of a risk register). • See sample documents on pages 90-98. Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  22. Planning Processes and Outputs Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  23. Planning Processes and Outputs Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  24. Planning Processes and Outputs Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  25. Planning Processes and Outputs Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  26. Scope Statement (Draft Version) Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  27. Scope Statement (Draft Version) Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  28. Scope Statement (Draft Version) (continued) Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  29. Figure 3-4. JWD Consulting Intranet Site Project Baseline Gantt Chart Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  30. Figure 3-4. JWD Consulting Intranet Site Project Partial Network Diagram Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  31. Table 3-8. List of Prioritized Risks Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  32. Project Executing • Project execution usually takes the most time and resources. • Project managers must use their leadership skills to handle the many challenges that occur during project execution. • Table 3-9 on page 99 lists the executing processes and outputs. Many project sponsors and customers focus on deliverables related to providing the products, services, or results desired from the project. • A milestone report (see example on page 100) can keep the focus on completing major milestones. Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  33. Executing Processes and Outputs Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  34. Executing Processes and Outputs (continued) Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  35. Table. 3-10. Part of Milestone Report Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  36. Project Monitoring and Controlling • Involves measuring progress toward project objectives, monitoring deviation from the plan, and taking corrective action to match progress with the plan. • Affects all other process groups and occurs during all phases of the project life cycle. • Outputs include performance reports, requested changes, and updates to various plans. Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  37. Monitoring and Controlling Processes and Outputs Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  38. Monitoring and Controlling Processes and Outputs (continued) Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  39. Monitoring and Controlling Processes and Outputs (continued) Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  40. Monitoring and Controlling Processes and Outputs (continued) Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  41. Monitoring and Controlling Processes and Outputs (continued) Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  42. Table 3-12:Sample Weekly Status Report Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  43. Table 3-12:Sample Weekly Status Report (continued) Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  44. Project Closing • Involves gaining stakeholder and customer acceptance of the final products and services. • Even if projects are not completed, they should be formally closed in order to reflect on what can be learned to improve future projects. • Outputs include project archives and lessons learned, which are part of organizational process assets. • Most projects also include a final report and presentation to the sponsor or senior management. Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  45. Table 3-13: Closing Processes and Output Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  46. Table 3-14: Lessons-Learned Report (abbreviated) Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  47. Lessons-Learned Report (abbreviated) (continued) Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  48. Final Project Report Table of Contents • Project Objectives • Summary of Project Results • Original and Actual Start and End Dates • Original and Actual Budget • Project Assessment (Why did you do this project? What did you produce? Was theproject a success? What went right and wrong on the project?) • Transition Plan • Annual Project Benefits Measurement Approach Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  49. Business case Project charter Team contract Scope statement WBS Baseline and actual Gantt chart List of prioritized risks Milestone reports Status reports Contract files Lessons-learned reports Final presentation Client acceptance form Final Project Report Table of Contents (continued) Attachments:A. Project Management Documentation Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition

  50. Survey and results Summary of user inputs Intranet site content Intranet site design documents Test plans and reports Intranet site promotion information Intranet site roll-out information Project benefits measurement information Final Project Report Table of Contents (continued) Attachments: B. Product-Related Documentation Infomation Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition