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Chapter 9: Project Human Resource Management

Chapter 9: Project Human Resource Management

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Chapter 9: Project Human Resource Management

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  1. Chapter 9:Project Human Resource Management Today…

  2. The Importance of Human Resource Management • People determine the success and failure of organizations and projects

  3. What is Project Human Resource Management? • Project human resource management includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with a project. Processes (PMBOK version 4) include • Develop HR plan • Acquire project team • Develop Project team • Manage Project team

  4. Processes and Process Groups • Go to the following website: •

  5. Is ITPM still a discipline in strong demand? • According to Schwalbe (Ch. 9), YES • Tens of thousands of IT professionals are now PMPs—certified by PMI, even so many thousands more are needed

  6. What about the Global Workforce? • Moving jobs to India is less desirable • Communication problems • To many IT professionals jumping between jobs • Salaries are now much higher • There remain cultural conflicts • Project management cannot be moved offshore

  7. What skills/competencies are important? • Writing skills • You will be writing between 100 and 500 pages of material a year • Your writing, like your programming, must be completely without defects • Negotiation skills • Presentation skills

  8. Name some of the motivation gurus Maslov– Hierarchy of needs • Hertzberg – Motivation/Hygiene theory • McClelland’s Acquired-Needs theory • McGregor’s theory x and theory y • Thamhain and Wilemon’sInfluence and Power • Covey’s Seven Habits

  9. Let’s Review: Covey’s Effectiveness Habits • Be proactive • Begin with the end in mind • Put first things first • Think win/win • Seek first to understand, then to be understood • Synergize • Sharpen the saw

  10. The four dimensions of psychological type coming from MBTI • Extrovert/Introvert • Sensation/Intuition • Thinking/feeling • Judgment/Perception • Project managers can benefit from knowing their team members’ MBTI profiles

  11. Questions • Who gave us the five phases of team development? • What does MBTI stand for? • How is Bill Gates classified on the MBTI? • How are most IT professionals classified? • Intuitive Thinkers

  12. Keys to Managing People • Psychologists and management theorists have devoted much research and thought to the field of managing people at work • Important areas related to project management include • motivation • influence and power • effectiveness

  13. Motivation • Abraham Maslow developed a hierarchy of needs to illustrate his theory that people’s behaviors are guided by a sequence of needs • Maslow argued that humans possess unique qualities that enable them to make independent choices, thus giving them control of their destiny • He rejected Sigmund Freud (actions are motivaed by primitive sexual urges)

  14. Figure 9-1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  15. Herzberg’s Motivational and Hygiene Factors • Frederick Herzberg wrote several famous books and articles about worker motivation. He distinguished between • motivational factors: achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth, which produce job satisfaction • hygiene factors: cause dissatisfaction if not present, but do not motivate workers to do more. Examples include larger salaries, health care and pension plans, and a more attractive work environment

  16. Motivational Factors • Achievement • Recognition • The work itself • Responsibility • Advancement • Growth • All of which produce job satisfaction

  17. Hygiene Factors • larger salaries, health care and pension plans, and a more attractive work environment • These produce dissatisfaction if not present • Do not motivate workers • NOW, lets cast this into Maslov’s Hierarchy

  18. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs People are at different levels on this chart

  19. Thamhain and Wilemon’s VIEW People are at different levels of the hierarchy depending on their life experiences These needs are acquired or learned They address a somewhat different question—how to have influence and power over stakeholders--

  20. Thamhain and Wilemon’s Ways to Have Influence on Projects 1. Authority: the legitimate hierarchical right to issue orders 2. Assignment: the project manager's perceived ability to influence a worker's later work assignments 3. Budget: the project manager's perceived ability to authorize others' use of discretionary funds 4. Promotion: the ability to improve a worker's position 5. Money: the ability to increase a worker's pay and benefits

  21. Thamhain and Wilemon’s Ways to Have Influence on Projects 6. Penalty: the project manager's perceived ability to dispense or cause punishment 7. Work challenge: the ability to assign work that capitalizes on a worker's enjoyment of doing a particular task 8. Expertise: the project manager's perceived special knowledge that others deem important 9. Friendship: the ability to establish friendly personal relationships between the project manager and others

  22. Ways to Influence that Help and Hurt Projects • Projects are more likely to succeed when project managers influence with • expertise • work challenge • Projects are more likely to fail when project managers rely too heavily on • authority • money • penalty

  23. Power • Power is the potential ability to influence behavior to get people to do things they would not otherwise do • Types of power include • Coercive • Legitimate • Expert • Reward • Referent

  24. Improving Effectiveness - Covey’s 7 Habits • Project managers can apply Covey’s 7 habits to improve effectiveness on projects • Be proactive • Begin with the end in mind • Put first things first • Think win/win • Seek first to understand, then to be understood • Synergize • Sharpen the saw

  25. Empathic Listening and Rapport • Good project managers are empathic listeners; they listen with the intent to understand • Before you can communicate with others, you have to have rapport • Mirroring is a technique to help establish rapport • IT professionals often need to develop empathic listening and other people competencies to improve relationships with users and other stakeholders

  26. Improving Relationships Between Users and Developers • Some organizations require business people, not IT people, to take the lead in determining and justifying investments in new computer systems • CIOs push their staff to recognize that the needs of the business must drive all technology decisions • Some companies reshape their IT units to look and perform like consulting firms

  27. Organizational Planning • Organizational planning involves identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships • Outputs and processes include • project organizational charts • work definition and assignment process • responsibility assignment matrices • resource histograms

  28. Figure 9-2. Sample Organizational Chart for a Large IT Project

  29. Figure 9-3. Work Definition and Assignment Process

  30. Figure 9-4. Sample Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

  31. Figure 9-5. RAM Showing Stakeholder Roles

  32. Figure 9-6. Sample Resource Histogram for a Large IT Project Excel file

  33. Issues in Project Staff Acquisition and Team Development • Staffing plans and good hiring procedures are important in staff acquisition, as are incentives for recruiting and retention • Some companies give their employees one dollar for every hour a new person they helped hire works • Some organizations allow people to work from home as an incentive

  34. Resource Loading and Leveling • Resource loading refers to the amount of individual resources an existing project schedule requires during specific time periods • Resource histograms show resource loading • Over-allocation means more resources than are available are assigned to perform work at a given time

  35. Figure 9-7. Sample Histogram Showing an Over-allocated Individual Project 98 file

  36. Resource Leveling • Resource leveling is a technique for resolving resource conflicts by delaying tasks • The main purpose of resource leveling is to create a smoother distribution of resource usage and reduce over-allocation

  37. Figure 9-8. Resource Leveling Example

  38. Team Development • It takes teamwork to successfully complete most projects • Training can help people understand themselves, each other, and how to work better in teams • Team building activities include • physical challenges • psychological preference indicator tools

  39. Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) • MBTI is a popular tool for determining personality preferences and helping teammates understand each other ( • Four dimensions include: • Extrovert/Introvert (E/I) • Sensation/Intuition (S/N) • Thinking/Feeling (T/F) • Judgment/Perception (J/P) • Most IT professionals are NTs or rationals • Vary most from general population in not being extroverted or sensing

  40. Reward and Recognition Systems • Team-based reward and recognition systems can promote teamwork • Focus on rewarding teams for achieving specific goals • Allow time for team members to mentor and help each other to meet project goals and develop human resources

  41. General Advice on Teams • Focus on meeting project objectives and producing positive results • Fix the problem instead of blaming people • Establish regular, effective meetings • Nurture team members and encourage them to help each other • Acknowledge individual and group accomplishments

  42. Using Software to Assist in Human Resource Management • Software can help in producing RAMS and resource histograms • Project management software includes several features related to human resource management such as • viewing resource usage information • identifying under and over-allocated resources • leveling resources

  43. Chapter 10:Project Communications Management

  44. Importance of Good Communications • The greatest threat to many projects is a failure to communicate • Our culture does not portray IT professionals as being good communicators • Research shows that IT professionals must be able to communicate effectively to succeed in their positions • Strong verbal skills are a key factor in career advancement for IT professionals

  45. Project Communications Management Processes • Communications planning: determining the information and communications needs of the stakeholders • Information distribution: making needed information available in a timely manner • Performance reporting: collecting and disseminating performance information • Administrative closure: generating, gathering, and disseminating information to formalize phase or project completion

  46. Project Communications Management Processes—4th edition • Identify Stakeholders • Plan Communications • Distribute Information • Manage Stakeholder Expectations • Report Performance

  47. Communications Planning • Every project should include some type of communications management plan, a document that guides project communications • Creating a stakeholder analysis for project communications also aids in communications planning

  48. Communications Management Plan Contents • A description of a collection and filing structure for gathering and storing various types of information • A distribution structure describing what information goes to whom, when, and how • A format for communicating key project information

  49. Communications Management Plan Contents, continued • A project schedule for producing the information • Access methods for obtaining the information • A method for updating the communications management plans as the project progresses and develops • A stakeholder communications analysis

  50. Table 10-1. Sample Stake holder Analysis for Project Communications