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Cytoskeleton and Extracellular Matrix

Cytoskeleton and Extracellular Matrix

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Cytoskeleton and Extracellular Matrix

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  1. Cytoskeleton and Extracellular Matrix Block 5 Erik Kessler, Michael O’Brien, Bryan Richman

  2. Structure: • Meshwork of fine fibers within the cell • Made up of three types of fibers • Microfilaments, Intermediate Filaments, and Microtubules • Gives the cell some structural support • Plays a role in cell movement • Movement of organelles, and cell itself • Needed for muscle contraction • Regulates cellular activity Cytoskeleton Function: More in textbook pg.64

  3. Globular proteins are hydrophilic Structure: • Solid rod made mostly of the globular protein actin • Double twisted chain that is 5-9 nm in diameter • Changes shape by moving subunits from the end to the front • This can change cell shape and make it move ex. Amoeba • Can interact with myosin to contract muscles • Allows a dividing cell (cytokinesis) to pinch off into two cells Microfilaments Function: More in textbook pg.64

  4. Fibrous proteins are hydrophobic Structure: • Rope-like structure • Made of fibrous protein • 8-11 nm in diameter • Made of subunits • monomer - rod connecting amino head to carboxyl tail • dimer - two monomers combine • tetramer - two dimers combined • tetramers combine into sheets which role up into its rope shape Intermediate Filaments More in textbook pg.64

  5. Function: • Keep organelles in place and holds the cell structure • ex. Hold nucleus in place • Can assemble and disassemble through phosphorylation with serine • Can bind with different proteins to improve stability or create attachment sites for protein assemblies • ex. actin filaments (microfilaments), microtubules • Help to attach chromosomes to nuclear membrane Intermediate Filaments More in textbook pg.64

  6. Structure: • Made of globular proteins • 20-25 nm in diameter • Act as track for organelle movement through cytoplasm • ex. lysosomes move along microtubules to reach vacuole, also support and move cilia and flagella • Guide chromosomes when cells divide • Move by adding tubulin to one end and losing them on the other Microtubules Function: More in textbook pg.64 And watch the cilia and flagella PowerPoint for more on their function

  7. Structure: • Sticky layer of glycoproteins • Made of: collagen and elastin (structural proteins), fibrillin and laminin (specialized proteins) • Holds animal cells together in tissues • Protects and supports cells • Regulates cell behavior • Gives strength, protection, and support to soft parts of the body (cartilage, etc.) Extracellular Matrix Function: More in textbook pg.66

  8. Function: • Adjacent cells in animal tissues are connected by cell junctions • Regulates what comes into the cell • Tight Junction: Binds cells together and forms a leak proof sheet • Prevents passage of molecules through the space between cells • Anchoring Junction: Attach cells to each other while still allowing material to pass in the area between the cells • Communicating Junction: Channels allowing water, small molecules, and ions to flow between adjacent cells- cells can communicate with electrical/ chemical signals Cell Junctions Types: More in textbook pg.66

  9. Mitchell, and Reece. "Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell." Biology: Concepts and Connections. By Campell. 3rd ed. San Francisco: Benjamin/Cummings, 2000. 64-66. Print. Digital image. Http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu. Web. 26 Nov. 2010. <http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/actin1063.JPG>. Digital image. Http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu. Web. 26 Nov. 2010. <http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/intermiediate-fil1063.JPG>. Digital image. Http://www.bscb.org. Web. 26 Nov. 2010. <http://www.bscb.org/softcell/images/mp_tripple.gif>. Digital image. Web. 26 Nov. 2010. <http://219.221.200.61/ywwy/zbsw(E)/pic/ech4-1.jpg>. "Cytoskeleton." ISCID - International Society for Complexity Information and Design. Web. 23 Nov. 2010. <http://www.iscid.org/encyclopedia/Cytoskeleton>.  "Cytoskeleton Tutorial." The Biology Project. 2004. Web. 23 Nov. 2010. <http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/cytoskeleton/page1.html>. "Intermediate Filaments." Cell Biology and Cytochemistry. Web. 23 Nov. 2010. <http://www.cytochemistry.net/cell-biology/intermediate_filaments.htm>.  "Microtubules." Cell Biology and Cytochemistry. Web. 27 Nov. 2010. <http://www.cytochemistry.net/cell-biology/microtub.htm>.  "Microtubules." Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) :: Architecture, Business, Engineering, IT, Humanities, Science. Web. 23 Nov. 2010. <http://rpi.edu/dept/bcbp/molbiochem/MBWeb/mb2/part1/microtub.htm>.  "Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: Intermediate Filaments." Molecular Expressions: Images from the Microscope. Web. 27 Nov. 2010. <http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/intermediatefilaments/intermediatefilaments.html> "Cytoskeleton Tutorial." The Biology Project. Web. 30 Nov. 2010. <http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/cytoskeleton/page1.html>. <http://rpi.edu/dept/bcbp/molbiochem/MBWeb/mb2/part1/microtub.htm>.  "Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: Intermediate Filaments." Molecular Expressions: Images from the Microscope. Web. 27 Nov. 2010. <http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/intermediatefilaments/intermediatefilaments.html>. "The Extracellular Matrix." 12 Apr. 2009. Web. 1 Dec. 2010. <http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/E/ECM.html>.  "Microtubules." Cell Biology and Cytochemistry. Web. 27 Nov. 2010. <http://www.cytochemistry.net/cell-biology/microtub.htm>.  "Microtubules." Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) :: Architecture, Business, Engineering, IT, Humanities, Science. Web. 23 Nov. 2010.  "Junctions Between Cells." 10 Oct. 2010. Web. 1 Dec. 2010. <http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/J/Junctions.html>. Sources