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  1. Characters Farmer JonesA drunk and a poor farmer, his cruelty towards the farm animals inspires their rebellion.

  2. Mr. Jones – Tsar Nicholas II Nicholas II was the last tsar of Russia. He was deposed during the Russian Revolution and executed by the Bolsheviks.

  3. Characters Old Major An elderly show pig whose instruction to the animals about "animalism" becomes the philosophical basis for the creation of Animal Farm.

  4. Old Major – Karl Marx Karl Marx (1818-1883), German political philosopher and revolutionary, the most important of all socialist thinkers and the creator of a system of thought called Marxism. With political economist Friedrich Engels he founded scientific socialism (now known as Communism for this, Marx is considered one of the most influential thinkers of all time.

  5. Characters NapoleonA pig with a gift for techniques of control, he establishes most of the farm’s rules and eventually becomes its sole leader.

  6. Napoleon – Josef Stalin Joseph Stalin (1879 - 1953) Joseph Stalin, 1922 One of the most powerful and murderous dictators in history, Stalin was the supreme ruler of the Soviet Union for a quarter of a century. His regime of terror caused the death and suffering of tens of millions, but he also oversaw the war machine that played a key role in the defeat of Nazism.

  7. Characters SnowballA clever pig with a head for ideas, he becomes one of the main leaders of Animal Farm and the author of its central commandments.

  8. Snowball – Leon Trotsky Leon Trotsky (1879 -1940) Leon Trotsky, head of Red Army, 1920 Trotsky was a key figure in the Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia, second only to Lenin in the early stage of Soviet communist rule. However, he lost out to Stalin in the power struggle that followed Lenin's death, and was assassinated while in exile.

  9. Characters SquealerA pig with the ability to make any idea sound reasonable, he is Napoleon's side-kick and is in charge of communicating to the animals.

  10. Squealer – Soviet propaganda Propaganda focuses on political discipline and the Five Year Plans, ambitious programs for the collectivization of agriculture and establishment of heavy industry.

  11. Characters BoxerA strong and hard-working carthorse, he shows tremendous faith in the rebellion and its leaders.

  12. Boxer – Loyal proletariat • Wage workers. From the Communist Manifesto: "By proletariat [is meant] the class of modern wage laborers, who, having no means of production of their own, are reduced to selling their labor-power in order to live."

  13. Characters Benjamin The donkey who is the oldest animal on the farm. He is the worst tempered who rarely talks, when he does he makes negative remarks.

  14. Benjamin – “silent Majority” These were people who did not protest, but did what was necessary to survive under the Tsar or Under communism.

  15. Characters Mollie A pretty white mare, who drew Mr. Jones’ trap. She is conceited and likes hair ribbons

  16. Mollie – The aristocracy under the Tsar The privileged ruling class in Russia under the rule of Tsars.

  17. Characters Moses A tame raven who is a spy and clever talking story teller. He knows about Sugarcandy Mountain where animals go when they die.

  18. Moses – Church in Russia The Russian Churches told the people that they suffered on earth but would go to a heavenly paradise when they died.

  19. Characters Mr. Pilkington Owner of Foxwood Farm. Easy going man who spent most of his time hunting or fishing. He tries to help Mr. Jones.

  20. Mr. Pilkington – Churchill & Great Britain Churchill did not approve of the Russian revolution and wanted Great Britain to help the Tsar.

  21. Characters Mr. Frederick Owns Pinchfield, one of the neighboring farms. He is worried about the Rebellion on Mr. Jones’s farm and suspects the revolutionary ideas may spread to his own animals.

  22. Mr. Frederick – Hitler & Nazi Germany During WWII, a war was fought between the German Reich, its allies, and many pro-Nazi volunteers from occupied states, against the Soviet Union, and eventually its allies of the British Commonwealth France and the United States.

  23. Characters Mr. Whymper A solicitor (lawyer) who acted as go-between for Animal Farm and the surrounding community. He traded with Animal Farm.

  24. Mr. Whymper - Capitalists Capitalism is the economic system in which the private ownership of property is protected by law. In most capitalist systems, the definition of property ranges from the simple goods that make up personal property to capital goods that control the means of production, such as factories.

  25. Characters Clover A strong, faithful, female cart horse-cart horse. She is motherly and middle-aged , buthas a hard time thinking for herself.

  26. Clover – Working Class Women Clover represents the the female part of the working class in Russia.

  27. Characters Muriel A

  28. Clover – Working Class Women Clover represents the the female part of the working class in Russia.

  29. Characters Jessie & Bluebell A

  30. Clover – Working Class Women Clover represents the the female part of the working class in Russia.