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Rocks contain Minerals

Rocks contain Minerals

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Rocks contain Minerals

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  1. Rocks contain Minerals Eric Angat Environmental Science Key Concepts

  2. All rocks contain one or more minerals.

  3. Minerals are formed when elements bond together.

  4. Gemstonesare valuable minerals that can be used to make jewelries.

  5. Salt is one of the most common minerals. We use it for preparing our food and many other uses.

  6. Copper is another common mineral. It is used for electrical wirings.

  7. A rock can contain more than one type of mineral.

  8. Granite contains two minerals. They are feldspar and quartz.

  9. Rocks are identified based on: 1. Ingredients ( type of minerals present) 2. How they formed.

  10. Melted and hardened are igneous. • Weathered and eroded into tiny fragments and then cemented together are sedimentary. • Buried and exposed to extreme heat and pressure are metamorphic.

  11. Geologist explain how rock are formed and destroyed by using the rock cycle.

  12. Igneous rocks are fire formed.

  13. Cooled and hardened molten magma form intrusive igneous rocks.

  14. Cooled and hardened lava form extrusive igneous rocks

  15. Metamorphic rocks are “changed” rocks. Due to extreme heat and pressure, an igneous rock can become a metamorphic rock like granite to schist. And a shale, a sedimentary rock, can become slate, a metamorphic rock.

  16. Sedimentary rocksare small rock fragments joined together by pressure. The small rock fragments can contain pieces of igneous and metamorphic rocks.

  17. Rocks form beneath the ground, except for extrusive igneous rocks. One way for rocks to get exposed is through weathering and erosion.

  18. In sedimentary rocks, the oldest is always the one at the bottom because that layer is the first one that formed.

  19. Fossilsare the remains of plants and animals trapped or imprinted on sedimentary rocks.

  20. Fossils are not found in igneous and metamorphic rocksbecause any plant and animal remain trapped in both rocks is burnt off due to extreme heat.

  21. Igneous rocks are formed from the solidification of molten rock material.

  22. There are two basic types: • intrusive igneous rockssuch as diorite, gabbro, granite and pegmatite that solidify below Earth's surface. • extrusive igneous rockssuch as andesite, basalt, obsidian, pumice, rhyolite and scoria that solidify on or above Earth's surface.

  23. Intrusive igneous rocks such as diorite, gabbro, granite and pegmatite that solidify below Earth's surface.

  24. extrusive igneous rockssuch as andesite, basalt, obsidian, pumice, rhyolite and scoria that solidify on or above Earth's surface.

  25. Porphyritic is a type of igneous rock that has a distinct difference in the size of the crystals, with at least one group of crystals obviously larger than another group.

  26. Andesite This is an extrusive porphyritic rock, as the pink (and black) phenocrysts are clearly visible, in contrast the grey groundmass with its microscopic crystals.

  27. Porphyritic

  28. Aphanitic fine-grained basalt

  29. Gabbro better developed crystals

  30. Fine-grained granite

  31. This granite has coarse-grained indicating that the crystals had a much longer time to crystallize

  32. Medium-grained granite.  The size of the crystals indicates that it took longer to cool than the fine-grained granite

  33. If the magma forming an igneous rocks fragments, or cools quickly and explosively, it may produce pumice,a pyroclastic rock. 

  34. Pumice is very porous and will sometimes float on water.

  35. Metamorphic rocks have been modified by heat, pressure and chemical process usually while buried deep below Earth's surface.

  36. There are two basic types of metamorphic rocks: • foliated metamorphic rockssuch as gneiss, phyllite, schist and slate which have a layered or banded appearance that is produced by exposure to heat and directed pressure. • non-foliated metamorphic rockssuch as marble and quartzite which do not have a layered or banded appearance.

  37. Foliated metamorphic rockssuch as gneiss, phyllite, schist and slate which have a layered or banded appearance that is produced by exposure to heat and directed pressure.

  38. Non-foliated metamorphic rockssuch as marble and quartzite which do not have a layered or banded appearance.

  39. Metamorphism Any type of rock – igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks can become a metamorphic rock.

  40. Foliated Metamorphic Rock

  41. Quartziteis a non-foliated metamorphic rock that is produced by the metamorphism of sandstone.

  42. Quartzite is very hard and is often crushed and used in building railroad tracks

  43. Schistis metamorphic rock with well developed foliation. It often contains significant amounts of mica which allow the rock to split into thin pieces. chlorite schist

  44. Schistis metamorphic rock with well developed foliation. It often contains significant amounts of mica which allow the rock to split into thin pieces. muscovite schist

  45. Schistis metamorphic rock with well developed foliation. It often contains significant amounts of mica which allow the rock to split into thin pieces. garnet schist

  46. Slateis a foliated metamorphic rock that is formed through the metamorphism of shale. It is a low grade metamorphic rock that splits into thin pieces.

  47. Schist and slateare sometimes used as building and landscape materials.

  48. Graphite, the “lead” in pencils, is a mineral commonly found in metamorphic rocks.

  49. Marbleis a non-foliated metamorphic rock that is produced from the metamorphism of limestone.