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Rocks and Minerals

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Rocks and Minerals

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  1. Rocks and Minerals By Kenrick Leiba

  2. 3 Kinds of Rock • Igneous – rock that has melted and re-solidified. • Sedimentary – Formed from sediments that have been compacted and cemented together. • Metamorphic – Rock that has been changed by heat and pressures.

  3. Layers of the Earth

  4. Some revision on mixtures, compounds and elements • An element has one kind of atom • A compound has two more kinds of atoms in a fixture ratio • A mixture is mix of two or more substances that are NOT bonded.

  5. Most common Elements in the Earth’s crust • oxygen-46.4% • silicon-28.2% • aluminum-8.2% • iron-5.6% • calcium-4.2% • sodium-2.4% • magnesium-2.3% • potassium-2%

  6. Make up of the Earth’s Crust

  7. How do Rocks differ from minerals? • A mineral has a known chemical composition with a fixed ratio of elements. (could be an element or compound) • Rocks are made up of two or more minerals. • Therefore a Rock is a solid mixture of minerals the way cake is a mixture of eggs, flour, water etc.

  8. How to identify Minerals • Look at the following slides. Each shows several differ same samples of the same mineral. • What feature might be most useful for identification. What problems might you encounter.

  9. Examples of minerals • Quartz

  10. Sulphur

  11. Hematite

  12. Feldspar

  13. Mica

  14. Olivine

  15. Some examples of rocks • The following are some examples of different types of rocks.

  16. Granite

  17. Basalt

  18. Most common minerals • On the surface of continental crust: Quartz • In the whole crust: Feldspar • In the mantle: Olivine