Geology is the study of the Earth. The type of geology we will be studying is known as Physical Geology. Physical geology is where we study the pieces that make up the Earth and the forces that have shaped our planet’s surface. gEOLOGY
Our planet is a large rock with a molten (liquid rock; like lava) core. When this molten substance moves away from the core it cools and forms the hard crust of the Earth’s surface. This hard crust is made up of things we call rocks. The earth
Rocks are often thought of as just hard inanimate objects. However rocks have a ‘life’ cycle of their own. Over the years (sometimes millenia) rocks undergo continual transformations. ROCKS
Igneous Rock Sediment Molten Rock Sedimentary Rock Metamorphic Rock Rock Cycle
Minerals • Minerals are solid substances that make up the rocks of the planet. • Different elemental combinations make up different minerals. • Of the 92 elements that make up the Earth’s crust, 8 make up 98% of the crust.
Gemstones and precious metals • Gemstones are found in igneous and metamorphic rock. • They are valued for their rarity and/or beauty. • Amber, coral and pearls are the only non-mineral gemstones. • Precious metals are metallic minerals that are valued for their rarity or utility (usefulness). • Gold is soft, rare and beautiful. • Titanium is valued for its strength.
We identify rocks by examining their characteristics: (Red = Tests we will use) 1) Colour – Exterior colour and patterns. 2) Lustre – Shiny, dull, metallic or non-metallic. 3) Texture – Smooth, bumpy, jagged, etc. 4) Hardness – Using Moh’s Scale 5) Crystalline structure – Is it a crystal? 6) Specific Gravity – Is it heavy or light? 7) Streak Test – What is the rock’s colour when ground into a powder? Identifying rocks