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Rocks and Minerals

Rocks and Minerals

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Rocks and Minerals

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  1. Rocks and Minerals Vocabulary Part 1

  2. Core Inner Core • Definition: the inner part of the earth, full of hot liquid • Inner core: solid nickel and iron, solid because it is under so much pressure; 800 miles thick; 13,000°F • Outer core: liquid nickel and iron; 1,400 miles thick; 11,000°F Outer Core

  3. Crust • Definition: the outside of the earth – the part we live on – all of the rocks and minerals that we know are found here • 5 (under the oceans) - 25 (under the continents) miles thick • 1,600°F at the deepest parts

  4. Mantle • Definition: the layer of earth below the crust • 1,000-1,800 miles thick • 8,000°F at the deepest parts

  5. Rock • Definition: any piece of solid matter in the Earth’s crust • Made up of minerals • p. 239

  6. Mineral • Definition: matter that is not plant or animal • Rocks are made of these • p. 239 Gypsum Pink Chalcedony Sulfur (yellow)

  7. Geologist • Definition: a scientist who studies rocks and minerals • Includes: volcanoes, earthquakes, specific rocks, rock formations, identifying new rocks, how the earth was formed

  8. Appearance • Definition: the way something looks to you • Includes: color, luster, size, crystal structure • p. 239 Mesolite Calcite (purple) on Fluorite (white/yellow)

  9. Luster • Definition: the way a rock’s surface reflects light • Choices: metallic, nonmetallic, dull, pearly, glassy, greasy, silky • p. 240 Greasy Dull Glassy (the rock, not the lichen)

  10. Streak • Definition: the color of a mineral in its powdered form • BE CAREFUL: a mineral’s streak is NOT always the same as its appearance • p. 240-241 Bauxite

  11. Metallic • Definition: minerals with a shiny appearance • Looks like metal • p. 240 Gold Azurite

  12. Nonmetallic • Definition: minerals that allow light to pass through them, minerals with a dull appearance • Includes: dull, pearly, glassy, greasy, silky • p. 240 Pearly Silky Glassy

  13. Hardness • Definition: the ability to resist being scratched • p. 240 • We use the Mohs scale(1-10), created by Fredrich Mohs (German geologist) Examples: 1 – fingernail scratches it easily 6 – scratches glass easily 10 – scratches every other mineral (hardest mineral – diamond)

  14. Layers of the Earth Crust Mantle Core