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Rocks and Minerals

Rocks and Minerals

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Rocks and Minerals

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  1. Rocks and Minerals Junior Science

  2. Rocks and Minerals • Rocks may not be alive, but they can still tell us quite a lot about the past. • Geology is the study of the Earth, its rocks, minerals, volcanoes, earthquakes, fossils etc. • Mineralogy is a branch of geology that studies minerals.

  3. Minerals • A mineral is a naturally occurring substance with its own particular chemical composition & structure. • Minerals are found in the Earth’s crust (lithosphere) in beautiful shapes called crystals. • Quartz, mica and feldspar are examples of minerals. • Minerals are the building blocks that make up rock.

  4. Characteristicsof minerals • Minerals have several characteristics or properties that help geologists differentiate between them: • Crystal structure • Pigment and streak • Hardness

  5. Crystal Structure • Many minerals have a distinctive crystal structure • Eg. Wulfenite has flat crystals

  6. Rocks • The study of rocks is a branch of geology known as petrology. • A rock is made up of minerals. Granite is a rock made from three minerals—quartz, mica and feldspar.

  7. Ores • Ores are rocks or minerals that contain elements that may be extracted for profit. • Iron, for example, is extracted from an ore called haematite. • Aluminium is extracted from the ore bauxite.