What is Alcohol? • A depressant • Liquid obtained by fermentation of carbohydrates by yeast or by distillation. • Many varieties of alcohol, but Ethanol is the type used to make alcoholic beverages. • Alcoholic beverages include beer, distilled spirits (hard liquor), wine, liqueurs, and champagnes.
Minnesota Alcohol Legalities • Legal age to consume or possess alcoholic beverages is 21 years of age. • Underage Consumption fines start at $177. • DUI BAC (blood alcohol content) is .04 and DWI BAC is .08.
Driving SkillsAffected LegallyIntoxicated
Alcohol and Campus • Alcohol is prohibited on Minnesota State University-Mankato except for approved events • Underage Consumption results in a citation and on campus adjudication. • Individuals who are under the influence of alcohol and pose a safety risk to themselves or others will be admitted to a detoxification facility located off campus. These individuals can be held for up to 72 hours • Underage possession of alcohol results in a citation and on campus adjudication. The alcohol is also disposed.
Signs of Alcohol Use • Slurred speech • Dilated blood vessels (blood shot eyes) • Impaired coordination, motor skills, and judgment. • Alcohol odor on breath or person • Blackout/pass out • Impaired memory • Decreased heart rate/blood pressure
Risks of Excessive Use of Alcohol • More prone to being a victim of another crime such as sexual assault, robbery, etc. • Legal, financial, and social problems • Serious health complications • Alcoholism • Alcohol poisoning • Death
Drinking Responsibly • Consume at legal age • Don’t drink and drive. Designate a sober driver • Only accept drinks from someone you know or from the bartender • Never leave your drink unattended • Drink water in intervals to prevent dehydration and monitor your consumption
Interesting Alcohol Facts • Most commonly abused substance in the world • Approximately 14 million Americans meet diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse or alcoholism • Moderate use for men is two drinks per day and for women it is one drink • A drink is considered as a 12 oz. beer or wine cooler, 1.5 oz of 80 proof distilled spirits, or a 5 oz. glass of wine • Dieting? Alcohol has 100-150 calories per glass • Alcohol may cause wrinkles as it robs your skin of fluids • Alcohol can cause acne as it may increase your skin’s production of fat and oil • Too much alcohol can cause impotence or sterility
Drug Categories • Stimulants (meth, cocaine, crack, ecstasy) • Depressants (alcohol, GHB) • Inhalants (paint thinners, spray paint, glue) • Narcotics (heroin, opium, oxycodone) • Hallucinogens (LSD, PCP, ketamine, mushrooms, mescaline, salvia) • Others (marijuana)
Club Drugs • MDMA (Ecstasy, Hug Drug, Lover’s Speed, Scooby Snacks, “X”) • GHB (“G”, Liquid E, Fantasy) • LSD (Acid, Boomers, Hits, Dots), • PCP (Wet Sticks, Angel Dust, Hog, Peace), • Rohypnol (Roofies), • Ketamine (Special K, Purple)
MDMA • Hallucinogenic and stimulant qualities • Reduces inhibitions and anxiety, creates empathy for others, and suppresses need to eat, drink, and sleep • Risks of dehydration and brain damage • Popular at raves and dance clubs • In 2005, DEA seized 624 Ecstasy tablets
Methamphetamine • Can be smoked, snorted, injected, or taken orally. • Causes rapid and irregular heart rate, psychotic symptoms, convulsions, skin abscesses, tooth decay… • In 2005, the DEA seized 24.6 kgs and 96 labs. Meth is shipped in from California but labs in MN are on the rise.
What is Meth Made Of? • Ephedrine or pseudoephedrine (cold and/or asthma medicine) • Other products such as: drain cleaner, battery acid, antifreeze, brake cleaner fluid, engine starter fluid, kerosene, Anhydrous Ammonia (farm fertilizer), paint thinner, acetone, lye, etc…
Meth Lab Dangers • Estimated that every pound of meth produced leaves 5-7 pounds of toxic waste • Chemicals from dumpsites contaminate water supplies, kill livestock, and render areas uninhabitable • Meth lab fires or explosions have destroyed buildings and homes, injuring occupants and endangering neighboring residents and buildings • Exposure may cause long and short-term health problems
Signs of Chemical Exposure • Acute Exposure: shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, dizziness, burns to skin, eyes, nose, and mouth, and possibly death • Less Severe Exposures: headache, nausea, dizziness, and fatigue • Long Term: Liver and kidney damage, neurological problems, and increased risk of cancer
LSD • Most potent hallucinogen • Effects are unpredictable-depend on user’s mood, personality, expectations, and surroundings
Marijuana • Also known as: 420, bud, weed, reefer, ganja, grass, pot, mary jane, catnip, whackatabacky • Usually smoked (joints, blunts, bongs, blunts) but can be mixed with foods or beverages. • Effects felt within minutes and lasts 3 to 4 hours • In 2008 DEA seized 37.1 kgs. in MN. Majority of it is trafficked from Mexico.
Signs You Have Been Drugged • Feeling more intoxicated than your usual response to the amount of alcohol consumed • Remembering taking a drink, but unable to recall what happened after • Feeling as though someone had sex with you, being unable to remember any or all of the incident
If You Suspect You Are A Victim of a Predatory Drug Crime • Find a safe environment and get help • Call the police and file a report • Do not shower, bathe, or urinate. Do not throw away clothing. • Seek medical attention as soon as possible for an examination and evidence collection. • Ask for a urine sample • Ask for a rape kit exam • Be truthful about any drug/alcohol use
Reducing the Risk of Being A Victim • Don’t leave beverages unattended • Don’t accept a drink from an open container • Go with friends and stay together • Be aware of your surroundings • Don’t become isolated with someone you don’t know or trust • Educate yourself about drugs
Drug Legislation • In 1996, Congress passed the Drug-Induced Rape Prevention and Punishment Act • This law established federal penalties of up to 20 years imprisonment and fines for anyone convicted of committing a crime of violence, including rape, by administering a controlled substance without a victim’s knowledge or consent
Legislation Continued... • Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Drug Prohibition Act (Feb. 2000) • Named for two young women who died after unknowingly ingesting GHB that had been slipped into their soft drinks • Federal Sentencing Guidelines: 1st offense. If death or serious injury, not less than 20 years, not more than life
Presentation Resources • www.dea.gov • www.erowid.org • www.kci.org • www.health.state.mn.us • www.streetdrugs.org • www.minnesotapublicradio.com