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  1. Biotechnology

  2. What Is Biotechnology? • Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms • Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses

  3. What Is Biotechnology? • GMO- genetically modified organisms. • GEO- genetically enhanced organisms. • With both, the natural genetic material of the organism has been altered. • Roots in bread making, wine brewing, cheese and yogurt fermentation, and classical plant and animal breeding

  4. What Is Biotechnology? • Manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology • Genetic engineering involves taking one or more genes from a location in one organism and either • Transferring them to another organism • Putting them back into the original organism in different combinations

  5. What is the career outlook in biotechnology? • Biotech in 1998 • 1,300 companies in the US • 2/3 have less than 135 employees • 140,000 jobs • Jobs will continue to increase exponentially • Jobs are available to high school graduates through PhD’s

  6. What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology? • Multidisciplinary- involving a number of disciplines that are coordinated for a desired outcome • Science • Life sciences • Physical sciences • Social sciences

  7. What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology? • Mathematics • Applied sciences • Computer applications • Engineering • Agriculture

  8. What Are the Stages of Biotechnology Development • Ancient biotechnology- early history as related to food and shelter; Includes domestication • Classical biotechnology- built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine • Modern biotechnology- manipulates genetic information in organism; Genetic engineering

  9. What Are the Areas of Biotechnology? • Organismic biotechnology- uses intact organisms; Does not alter genetic material • Molecular biotechnology- alters genetic makeup to achieve specific goals • Transgenic organism- an organism with artificially altered genetic material

  10. What Are the Benefits of Biotechnology? • Medicine • Human • Veterinary • Biopharming • Environment • Agriculture • Food products • Industry and manufacturing

  11. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? • Anton van Leeuwenhoek • Discovered cells • Bacteria • Protists • Red blood

  12. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? • Gregor Johan Mendel • Discovered genetics

  13. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? • Walter Sutton • Discovered Chromosomes

  14. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? • Thomas Hunt Morgan • Discovered how genes are transmitted through chromosomes

  15. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? • Ernst Ruska • Invented the electron microscope

  16. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? • Sir Alexander Fleming • Discovered penicillin

  17. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? • Rosalind Elsie Franklin • Research led to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA

  18. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? • James Watson and Francis Crick • Discovered DNA

  19. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? • Mary-Claire King • Mapped human genes for research of cancer treatments

  20. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? • Ian Wilmut • Created the first true clone, the Dorset ewe Dolly

  21. What Is Molecular Biology? • Molecular biology- study of molecules in cells • Metabolism- processes by which organisms use nutrients • Anabolism- building tissues from smaller materials • Catabolism- breaking down materials into smaller components

  22. What Is a Cell? • Cell- a discrete unit of life • Unicellular organism- organism of one cell • Multicellular organism- organism of many cells • Prokaryote- cells that lack specific nucleus • Eukaryote- cells with well-defined nucleus

  23. What Is a Cell? • Cells are building blocks: • Tissue- collection of cells with specific functions • Organs- collections of tissues with specific functions • Organ systems- collections of organs with specific functions

  24. What Are the Structures in Molecular Genetics? • Molecular genetics- study of genes and how they are expressed • Chromosome- part of cell nucleus that contains heredity information and promotes protein synthesis • Gene- basic unit of heredity on a chromosome • DNA- molecule in a chromosome that codes genetic information

  25. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

  26. What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)? • Transcription- process of RNA production by DNA • DNA-thread-like molecule which decodes DNA information

  27. What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)? • Kinds of RNA: • mRNA- RNA molecules that carry information that specifies amino acid sequence of a protein molecule during translation • rRNA- RNA molecules that form the ribosomal subunits; Mediate the translation of mRNA into proteins • tRNA- molecules that decode sequence information in and mRNA • snRNA- very short RNA that interconnects with to promote formation of mRNA

  28. What Are Genetic Engineering Organisms? • Genetic engineering- artificially changing the genetic information in the cells of organisms • Transgenic- an organism that has been genetically modified • GMO- a genetically modified organism • GEO- a genetically enhanced organism

  29. How Can Genetically Engineered Plants Be Used? • Agriculture • Horticulture • Forestry • Environment • Food Quality

  30. How Do We Create Transgenic Organisms? • Donor cell- cell that provides DNA • Recipient cell- cell that receives DNA • Protocol- procedure for a scientific process • Three methods used in gene transfer • Agrobacterium gene transfer- plasmid • Ballistic gene transfer- gene gun • Direct gene transfer- enzymes

  31. How Does Agrobacterium Gene Transfer Work? • Extract DNA from donor • Cut DNA into fragments • Sort DNA fragments • Recombine DNA fragments • Transfer plasmids with bonded DNA • Grow transformed (recipient) cells

  32. What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology? • Plant breeding- improvement of plants by breeding selected individuals to achieve desired goals • Cultivar- a cultivated crop variety

  33. What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology? • Plant breeding methods; • Line breeding- breeding successive generations of plants among themselves • Crossbreeding- breeding plants of different varieties or species • Hybridization- breeding individuals from two distinctly different varieties • Selection

  34. Why Are Plants Genetically Engineered? • Resist pests • Resist herbicides • Improved product quality • Pharmaceuticals • Industrial products

  35. What Is AI? • Artificial insemination- the transfer of collected semen to a recipient female • Semen is collected from males of desired quality • Semen is graded and stored

  36. What Is AI? • Female must be in estrus for conception • Hormone injections may be used to synchronize estrus • Semen is placed in the cervix near the horns of the uterus

  37. What Is a Test Tube Baby? • In vitro fertilization- fertilization of collected ova outside the reproductive tract; Usually in a test tube • Semen is collected from males of desired quality • Ova are removed from females • Sperm and ova are placed in a petri dish or test tube

  38. What Is Gender Reversal? • Gender reversal- changing the sex of an animal • Very young animals receive hormone treatments • Most common among selected fish species

  39. What Is Gender Preselection? • Gender preselection- choosing the sex of offspring • Sperm sorted before conception • Sperm sorted on basis of chromosome differences • X chromosomes produce female offspring • Y chromosomes produce male offspring

  40. What Is Embryo Transfer? • Embryo transfer- removing fertilized ova (embryos) from donor and implanting in a recipient • Surgical and nonsurgical methods are used to remove and implant • A quality donor female can produce more offspring

  41. What Is Multiple Ovulation? • Multiple ovulation- promoting increased release of ova during estrus • Hormone injections administered prior to estrus • Used with embryo transfer • AI may be used to fertilize ova • After fertilization, embryos are removed and placed in recipients

  42. What Is Cloning? • Clone- new organism that has been produced asexually from a single parent • Genotype is identical to parent • Cells or tissues are cultured

  43. How Are Hormones Used in Animal Production? • Hormone- natural product of glands to produce a response in another part of the body • Released by endocrine glands into blood system • Hormones are identified, functions determined, and isolated • Used to increase growth and production rates • bST- promotes milk production in cows • pST- promotes lean meat production in swine

  44. What Is Bioremediation? • Bioremediation- using biological processes to solve environmental problems • Biodegradation- natural processes of microbes in breaking down hydrocarbon materials • Biodegradable- capable of being decomposed by microbes

  45. How Can Bioremediation Be Used? • Oil spills • Wastewater treatment • Heavy metal removal • Chemical degradation

  46. What Is Phytoremediation? • Phytoremediation- process of plants being used to solve pollution problems • Plants absorb and break down pollutants • Used with heavy metals, pesticides, explosives, and leachate

  47. What Is Composting? • Composting- a process that promotes biological decomposition of organic matter • Compost bin- a facility that contains materials for composting • In-vessel composting- using enclosed containers for composting

  48. What Are Bioethics? • Ethics- knowing right from wrong, and then doing the right idea • Bio- living organisms • Bioethics- knowing right from wrong with living organisms, and then doing the right idea •

  49. Creating Bioethics Arguments • Read this article from the school website • After you read this article prepare ethical arguments with at least 5 Scientific and Factual claims to support your Premise and Conclusion

  50. Ethical Arguments • Create an ethical argument for or against the following topics • Human Cloning • Gender Reversal on Livestock • Gender Reversal on Humans • Genetic Engineering of Plants • Genetic Engineering of Humans