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Biotechnology

Biotechnology

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Biotechnology

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  1. Biotechnology

  2. What is biotechnology? • Bio—the use of biological (life) processes • Technology—solve problems or make useful products 10

  3. What does biotechnology produce? • Foods • Vaccines • Antibiotics • Vitamins • Biodegradation • Selective breeding 9

  4. How does biotechnology work? • Manipulating an organism’s genome to • alter microbes, plants, and animals for our benefit • correct genetic defects in humans 8

  5. Plant Biotechnology: Classical Plant Breeding: Genetic modification following introduction of large amounts of undefined DNA from a genetically similar source. Genetic modification of a plant cell by introduction of defined DNA(s) from a genetically different source. 7

  6. Benefits • Agricultural Biotechnology • Increase yield • Enhance nutritional value • Environmentally friendly pesticide • Bio-medical devices • Reconstructive surgery • Bone, cartilage, skin grafts • Forest Biotechnology • Grow more wood • Conserve land • Fight a changing climate 6

  7. Recombinant DNA • Combining DNA from two different organisms 5

  8. Useful Properties of DNA • Restriction enzyme (endonucleases) can cut DNA at specific sites, leaving sticky ends for insertion of new DNA 4

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  10. Difficulties in Genetically Engineering Humans • Inserting gene in correct cells • Inserting gene so it is expressed correctly • Orientation • Regulation • Controlling virus vector • Ethical issues 2

  11. Other Issues • How will genetically engineered organisms affect environment? • Spread of genes to other organisms? • Who will decide? 1

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