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Biotechnology

Biotechnology

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Biotechnology

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  1. Biotechnology By Larry Stine Estherville Lincoln Central High School Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office June 2002

  2. Competencies: • define biotechnology, DNA, and other related terms • compare methods of plant and animal improvement • discuss historic applications of biotechnology • explain the concept of genetic engineering

  3. Competencies: • describe applications of biotechnology in agriscience • state some safety concerns and safeguards in biotechnology

  4. Terms to Know • Bio • Clone • Gene splicing • Improvement by selection • Genetic Engineering • Recombinant DNA technology • Selective breeding

  5. Terms to Know • Nucleic acid • Gene mapping • Genetics • Bases • Insulin • Heredity • Adenine (A)

  6. Terms to Know • Ice-minus • Genes • Guanine (G) • X-Gal • Generation • Cytosine (C) • Bovine somatotropin (BST)

  7. Terms to Know • Progeny • Thymine (T) • Porcine somatotropin (PST) • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) • Mapping

  8. Introduction • Biotechnology is a tool of agriscience • Promises unprecedented advancements • Has real dangers • Definition of Biotechnology

  9. Historic Applications • Living organisms have been used for centuries to alter and improve the quality and types of food for humans and animals • Yeast to make bread rise • Bacteria to ferment sauerkraut • Bacteria to produce cheese and other dairy products • Microorganisms to make alcoholic beverages • Bacteria in silage production

  10. Improving Plant and Animal Performance • Improvement by Selection • Improvement by Genetics • Improvement by Biotechnology

  11. Improvement by Selection • Soon followed domestication of the dog, horse, sheep, goat, ox and other animals thousands of years ago • Purchasing, selling, bartering and trading got people animals with desirable traits • Mating plants and animals with desirable traits resulted in selective breeding • Historical evidence in the development of the horse

  12. Improvement by Genetics • Gregor Johann Mendel • Austrian Monk who is credited with discovering the effect of genetics on plant characteristics • Experimented with garden peas • Published findings in 1866 • People didn’t pay much attention

  13. Improvement by Genetics • Mendel’s work would have been lost if not recorded • 1900 other scientist reviewed, built upon his observations, and conclusions • Today Gregor Johann Mendel is credited for discovering the principles of heredity

  14. Improvement by Biotechnology • Improvement by manipulating the genetic content of cells • Permits more choices for the researcher, more rapid observation of results • New capability with amazing implications

  15. DNA - Genetic Code of Life • Over 300,000 kinds of plants • Over 1 million kinds of animals • All are different in some ways • All plants and animals are alike in some ways • All contain DNA

  16. DNA - Genetic Code of Life • Cloning is common scientific knowledge • Early 1980’s Genetic Engineering developed • 1867 Friedrich Meischer discovered DNA which is similar in all living cells • structure • function • composition • transmitter of hereditary information

  17. DNA - Genetic Code of Life • DNA occurs in pairs of strands intertwined • Connected by chemicals called bases • Likened to the two sides of a wire ladder • Bases likened to the rungs and include: • Adenine (A) • Guanine (G) • Cytosine (C) • Thymine (T)

  18. DNA - Genetic Code of Life • Examples of traits: • hair color • tendency for baldness • height of plants at maturity • tendency of females to have twins • Gene Splicing • Gene Mapping

  19. Solving Problems with Microbes • Microscopic plants and animals lend themselves to genetic engineering • Produce quickly and can be genetically engineered to produce products need by other plants, animals, and humans • One of first commercial products was insulin • Used by people with diabetes to control their blood sugar levels

  20. Improving Plants and Animals • 1988- first use of ice-minus • 1988 use of genetically altered bacteria for Dutch Elm Disease • BST and PST • Roundup and Liberty Ready corn and soybeans • BT Corn

  21. Improving Plants and Animals • Genetic engineering and other forms of biotechnology hold great promise in controlling: • Diseases • Insects • Weeds • Other pests • Environment will be enhanced

  22. Waste Management • Environmental Pollution is a major problem • Landfills are becoming full • Old dump sites are creating problems • Waste is piling up • Sewage and chemical disposal is a constant problem

  23. Waste Management • Genetically altered bacteria are used to feed on oil slicks and spills • Bacteria are being developed to decompose or deactivate dioxin, PCBs, insecticides, herbicides, and other chemicals • Bacteria are under development to convert solid wastes into sugars and fuel

  24. Safety in Biotechnology • Federal and state governments monitor biotechnology closely • Fear of genetically modified organisms • Policies, procedures and laws have been developed • Gaining in public confidence