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Values and Values Systems

Values and Values Systems

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Values and Values Systems

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  1. Values and Values Systems

  2. Values Basic conviction: “A specific mode of conduct or end-stateof existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.”

  3. Value Systems • Community Values • Relative importance individual assigns to values such as: • Freedom • Pleasure • Self-respect • Honesty • Obedience • Equality

  4. Rokeach Value Survey • Terminal Values • Desirable end-states of existence • Desired goals to be achieved during lifetime • Instrumental Values • Preferable modes of behavior • Means of achieving the terminal values

  5. Terminal Values A comfortable life (a prosperous life) A sense of accomplishment (lasting contribution) A world of peace (free of war and conflict) A world of beauty (beauty of nature and the arts) Equality (brotherhood and equal opportunity for all) Family security (taking care of loved ones) Freedom (independence, free choice) Happiness (contentedness) Inner harmony (freedom from inner conflict) Pleasure (an enjoyable, leisurely life) Salvation (saved, eternal life) Social recognition (respect, admiration) True friendship (close companionship) Instrumental Values Ambitious (hardworking, aspiring) Capable (competent, effective) Cheerful (lighthearted, joyful) Clean (neat, tidy) Courageous (standing up for your beliefs) Helpful (working for the welfare of others) Honest (sincere, truthful) Imaginative (daring, creative) Logical (consistent, rational) Loving (affectionate, tender) Obedient (dutiful, respectful) Polite (courteous, well mannered) Responsible (dependable, reliable) Examples: Terminal and Instrumental Values in Rokeach Value Survey Source: Adapted from M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).

  6. Values and Ethical Behavior Values of uppermanagement bear significantly on the entire ethical climate within an organization