Ecosystems The flow of energy in an Ecosystem.
Movement of Energy in an Ecosystem • How does energy and nutrients flow or move through a community? • How is the flow or movement of energy or nutrients essential to a community? • How does the movement of energy and nutrients bind together a community and its environment – how are they interconnected?
Life depends on energy from the sun.PHOTOSYNTHESIS 6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Others use inorganic chemical compounds - hot springs, deep ocean trenches – chemosynthesis http://www.jamstec.go.jp/jamstec-e/30th/part5/image/p74_3.jpg
Trophic Levels of Energy Flow • Producers – make their own food (ex. Plants, algae and phytoplankton (autotrophs)) • Consumers – can not make their own food, relies on other organisms for energy (heterotroph) • Decomposer- breaks down organic matter and absorbs nutrients (ex. fungi and bacteria (heterotrophs)) • Scavenger – feed on dead/dying animals (ex. Hyena)
Types of Consumers • Herbivore – eats plants, 1°Consumer • Carnivore – eats meat, 1°Consumer, 2° or 3° Consumer, • Omnivore – eats plants AND/OR meat 1°, 2° or 3°Consumer
Autotrophs – make their own food – producer • Heterotrophs – eat other things – consumers bp2.blogger.com/
Heterotrophs • carnivores – eat animals
Heterotrophs omnivores – eat plants and animals http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/staticfiles/NGS/Shared/StaticFiles/animals/images/primary/grizzly-bear.jpg
Heterotrophs • detritivores – eat dead things http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/fc.rhithro.lind.jpg http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=4505683808705904903&ei=LqIFSprHJZKurgLftKSFCg&q=crab+eating+google&hl=en&client=firefox-a
Heterotrophs decomposers – break down organic matter http://lc.k12.mn.us/HighSchool/KenSchmidt/Images/bacteria.jpg http://photo.joedlh.net/Images/LittlePond06/Crepidotus_applanatus.jpg
Heterotrophs scavengers–feed on dead/dying animals
Which do you think there would be the most of in an ecosystem: Producers, 1° Consumers or 2 ° Consumers and why
Food Chain-linear diagram-sequence of organisms through which energy moves in a community Producer 1°Consumer 2°Consumer 3°Consumer
Is a food chain an accurate representation of what REALLY happens in an ecosystem? • A food chain is a very simple way to show what is happening in an ecosystem. • In reality, organisms eat more than one thing in an ecosystem. • Food chains and food webs do not show how many organisms live in the ecosystem at each level.
Food web *combination of many food chains *starts with producers and ends with consumers http://www.abe.ufl.edu/~owens/age2062/lect/lect_28/40_07.GIF
Ecological Pyramid – flow of energy Each Consumer can not process 100% of the Biomass. At each trophic level of the pyramid, 10% of the energy is transferred to the next trophic level (90% lost). Energy is stored in the organism or lost as heat into the atmosphere (once lost is can not be replaced).
As we move up a food chain, there are less and less numbers of organisms at each level.
Energy Pyramid Shows the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level. Organisms use about 10 percent of this energy for life processes. The rest is lost as heat. Ecological Pyramids Pyramid of Numbers Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level. Biomass Pyramid Represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level. Typically, the greatest biomass is at the base of the pyramid.
Ecological Pyramid – represents the flow of energy Diagram showing how much energy/biomass there is at different trophic levels
Energy Pyramid • shows the amount of energy through a food chain • only about of the energy goes to the next level • What happens to the rest? 10 % heat
Biomass Pyramid • shows the total mass through a food chain
Pyramid of Numbers • show the number of organisms through a food chain
Biotic and Abiotic Factors Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors ECOSYSTEM
Cycles of Matter Matter is recycled within and between ecosystems.
Evaporation Transpiration The Water Cycle Condensation Precipitation Runoff Seepage Root Uptake
The Carbon Cycle CO2 in Atmosphere CO2 in Ocean
The Nitrogen Cycle N2 in Atmosphere NO3- and NO2- NH3
Cape May Warbler Feeds at the tips of branches near the top of the tree Bay-Breasted Warbler Feeds in the middle part of the tree Yellow-Rumped Warbler Feeds in the lower part of the tree and at the bases of the middle branches Spruce tree