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Microbiology. Review. Introduction to Microbiology. Microbiology: The study of microscopic life (>1mm) Microbes (Micro-organisms): simple life form, usually single celled, that can not be seen with the naked eye.
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Introduction to Microbiology Microbiology: The study of microscopic life (>1mm) Microbes (Micro-organisms): simple life form, usually single celled, that can not be seen with the naked eye. The term microbiology includes the study of all microbes, including bacteria, fungi, algae, parasites, helminths & viruses
Important figure in Microbiology Louis Pasteur (1822 – 1895) -Developed the germ theory of disease in 1798, Pasteurization technique Anton van Leeuwenhoek – “father of microbiology” – first microbiologst – invented first microscope Lynn Margulis – introduced and substantiated the theory of endosymbiotic evolution
Favorable environment for bacterial/microbial growth Microbes need certain conditions to survive. These include: Food, moisture, favorable temperature, proper gaseous atmosphere, appropriate pH and salt concentration If these conditions are not favorable some bacteria will form spores to wait the return of favorable growth conditions. Unlike other living beings some bacteria can live & grow without the presence of atmospheric O2
The conditions which can inhibit or limit bacterial growth Lack of food Dryness—kills most bacteria but not spores Medium too high or too low in pH Antiseptics retard bacterial growth Disinfectants kill bacteria. Unfavorable temperature Cold/below freezing retards growth. Heat (boiling) kills most non-spore forming bacteria. Light direct rays of sun & UV light are harmful to bacteria.
Growth Requirements of Bacteria: Bacteriologists grow bacteria by using nutrient agar, nutrient broth, gelatin, litmus milk & other media. 2. Food or energy sources a. Autotrophic —inorganic, nonpathogenic b. Heterotrophic —organic, pathogenic Parasites— utilize living organic matter Saprophytes — dead organic matter 3. Oxygen a. aerobic b. anaerobic c. micro-aerophilic
Growth & Reproduction Under favorable conditions, bacteria reproduce by Binary fission —the cell divides in two halves after developing a transverse furrow in the cell wall around the bacteria. In a period of 12 hours, one single bacteria may reproduce 16 million descendants to form bacterial colonies.
Exponential growth Growth curve – figure 7.18 (page 210) As bacteria grow, they give off poisonous wastes & enzymes –Toxins -which may cause disease or food spoilage Overpopulation & accumulation of waste kill most bacteria Irregular/complex habitats and biofilms give community stability and increase diversity
Study of special characteristics of the cell wall Different stains give different colors to various types of cell walls. Gram negative: cell wall is not as thick as in gram positive bacteria it allows to secrete toxins Gram positive: cell wall is much thicker compared to the gram negative bacteria it provides rigidity & strength to the organism
Toxins Endotoxins - remain within the cell produced by gram negative bacteria Signs/symptoms of endotoxins are produced when the toxins enter the blood stream Exotoxins - toxins diffuse out of the cell wall produced by gram positive bacteria most potent toxins Responsible for tetanus, diphtheria, gas gangrene
Relationship between living organisms Independence Symbiosis Mutualism Commensalism Parasitism Antibiosis
Classification of bacteria on the basis of cell shape i) Cocci =Spherical ii) Bacilli =Rod shaped iii) Spirilla=Spiral shaped , or curved Bacterial cells are often arranged into particular patterns, because their cell walls remain attached to each other after cell division.
Locomotion Many bacteria have flagella Flagella propel the bacteria. Most spiral shaped bacteria are motile Sphere shaped cocci—non motile Many rod-shaped bacteria are motile, e.g. Typhoid bacillus— has many flagella
Endospores Bacillihave ability to formspores. When spores develop nothing can enter or leave the cell. This makes the bacteria very resistant to drying, temperature changes, & the action of stains & disinfectants. They become hard to kill—health hazard. During spore stage bacterial cell is alive but inactive. Only bacilli (rod shaped) bacteria form spores. Spores present special problem in sterilization techniques. Killing of spores requires strict & longer sterilization procedures For example, Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium species.
Bacteria May be harmful or beneficial. Pathogenic—invade animal or plant tissue to produce diseases. Non-pathogenic—perform useful functions decomposing refuse—improve fertility of soil curring of tobacco, tea & coffee making of yogurt, cheeses- acidophilus milk
Fungi are very simple, eukaryotic, “plantlike” structures do not contain chlorophyll—can not carry photosynthesis & produce their own food. They are saprophytesthat obtain their nutrition from dead and decaying organic material. Fungi are the scavengers of the microbes.
Fungi Yeasts-are the unicellular forms of fungi Moldsare the multicellular, filamentous fungi—often found on bread, cheese, and fruits Molds are of great importance- major source of antibiotics Both molds & yeasts have some harmful & some beneficial members. Yeasts are spherical or oval cells—microscopic Molds’ filaments are visible to naked eye. Rhizophus—black bread mold Penicillium—used to make penicillin
Helminths (Parasitic Worms) Multicellular, usually macroscopic Produce infestation in both humans and animals (fecal) Can be prevented by cleanliness Treated with antihelminthic drugs
Protozoa microscopic, single celled animals - eukaryotes larger than fungi more complex & detailed internal structure many protozoa have cell organelles Responsible for diseases such as malaria, Chagas, African sleeping sickness, Giardia
Giardia lamblia is a parasite found in human intestine that causes dysentery. most common intestinal parasite in USA causes traveler’s diarrhea. Due to cross contamination of drinking water & sewage Diagnosed by cysts or trophozoite forms.
Viruses smallest infections agents intracellular parasites-can reproduce only in host cells can not carry on independent metabolism viruses are not cellular – not autopoietic consist only of a nucleic acid either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat.
Viruses continued the protein coat of the virus determines what type of cells the virus can parasitize & acts to protect the nucleic acid inside a virus that attacks the bacterial cells is known as a phage or bacteriophage. a phage consists of a head made from a protein membrane with 20 facets (sides) surrounding either DNA or RNA the tail combines a collar attached to a tail sheath.
HIV HIV is carried in blood, semen, & body fluids. usually fatal known to be dormant for years certain drug combinations slow the rate of invasion of the White Blood cells by the virus. cure is not yet on the horizon leading cause of death in young adults, aged 25-44
Prions Known as proteinaceous infectious particles non-immunogenic - they do not result in the formation of antibodies – no evolved immune response Prions contain nothing but proteins. No RNA or DNA The known Prion diseases are all fatal and are referred to as spongiform encephalopathies—because they cause the brain to have holes like a sponge. Mad cow disease is one example.
Classification of viruses on the basis of: nucleic acid they contain the size, shape and structure of the virus the tissue the infect
Virus facts generally more resistant to some disinfectants than most bacteria. most are susceptible to heat, except hepatitis virus not affected by antibiotics
DNA viruses Poxivirusgroup (DNA) virus – pathogenic to skin small pox, cow pox Herpes virus group (DNA) Latent infection may occur and lasts the life span of the host. Cold sores Shingles Chicken pox Adenovirus group (DNA) Conjunctivitis Papovirusgroup (DNA) Wart virus
Aids Virus (Retrovirus) Patients are prone to develop opportunistic infections and diseases/disorders Incubation period (the period between becoming infected and the actual development of the symptoms)from 6 months up to 10 years. Sometimes a mild illness--flu like symptoms appears 7-14 days after infection It is accepted that once infected with HIV, AIDS will develop at some time in the future in all cases. At present there is no cure. Opportunistic infections associated with AIDS can be treated.