King George III Became King in 1760
The Colonies • The colonies were founded starting in 1607 (Virginia) and 1733 (Georgia) • Each colony formed their own system of self government • They were also part of Great Britain
Problems began to arise • The French and Indian War (1754-1763) • Britain and the colonies vs. The French and the some native tribes • The British won, but it left them in tremendous debt • Britain passed some taxes on the colonies to help pay off their debt. • 3 minute film clip (taxes)
Why did Great Britain pass the Sugar Act, the Stamp Act and the Townsend Act? • They were in debt after the French and Indian War. • 140 million pounds (a tremendous amount at that time).
What was the major complaint of the colonists? • Colonists were upset because it was a tax put on by the British parliament, and the colonists didn’t have representation in parliament. • “No Taxation Without Representation” Patrick Henry
How did the colonist respond? • Protests and violence
What is a Quartering Act? • Required private homes to provide for British troops • England had 10,000 British troops stationed in the colonies. • Those troops were used to enforce British laws.
Colonist began to fear a standing army • What is a standing army? • Why would people fear a standing army?
Boston Massacre • March 5, 1770 • Boston Massacre (3 minutes)
The soldiers were tried for manslaughter and only two were convicted. • The incident deepened the colonial distrust of a standing army. • Things improved over the next couple of years until…
New tensions • Spring 1773 the East Indian Company was in serious financial troubles. • Tea Act of 1773 • To help them, the British parliament gave the company a monopoly on the tea trade in America • They also retained a 3 cent tax on the colonies
Boston Tea Party • Tea Act and Boston Tea Party
The British Response • Intolerable acts • 4 minutes
British Reaction • Britain was mad and passed a number of laws which colonists referred to as the Intolerable Acts
Intolerable Acts • 1. Boston harbor was shut down until the company was reimbursed and the taxes paid. • 2. Limited Massachusetts ability to have a government • 3. anyone charged with a crime in the colonies were to be tried in Great Britain. • 4th a more extensive quartering act (1774)
First Continental Congress (Sept.-Oct. of 1774) • Began September 5, 1774 • Recommended a boycott of British goods. • Advised people to arm and set up their own militias. • DIDN’T Recommend we leave Great Britain.
British Reaction • Militia groups began to gather and train outside of Boston. • Military supplies were gathered. • April, 1775 Britain sent nearly 10,000 troops to arrest revolutionaries and confiscate their stuff in Concord, Mass. • They clashed with local militia, marking the first fighting of the Revolutionary War. • The war would be fought from 1775-1783
2nd Continental Congress (1775-1781) • Winter of 1775 American troops invaded Canada • By March of 1776, with Washington as commander, British troops were forced to evacuate Boston.
On June 11, 1776 a committee was formed to draft a document explaining the justification for separation from Britain. • The declaration of Independence, written mostly by Thomas Jefferson, was signed on July 4th, 1776.
What did the Declaration of Independence do? • 1. Declared are Independence from Great Britain. • 2. Outlined our core political beliefs. • 3. Listed the complaints we had with Great Britain.
Articles Of Confederation • The “Articles of Confederation”, our first constitution, was created 1777 and officially approved by the states in 1781. • Short film Articles of Confederation (6 minutes)
Articles of Confederation (1781-1787)
“Power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.”
Why such a weak government? • We were very afraid of a strong national government so we created one that was ineffectually weak.
Weaknesses of the Articles • No power to tax or raise money • No power to enforce laws • No power to enforce trade agreements • Small states had equal power to large states • No ability to have army or navy. • No executive branch • No judicial branch • Took a unanimous vote to change. (all 13 states)
What problems arose? • Trade disputes between the states. • Money problems (Debt) • Shaye’s Rebellion (1786-87)
Constitution Convention • Called in late spring of 1787 in Philadelphia • The purpose was to revise the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation • Ended up starting from scratch. • Completed September 17, 1787 • Ratified by the states and went into effect in 1789.
The purpose of a Constitution • Sets out the ideals that the people believe in • Establishes the basic structure of government and defines the governments powers and duties • It Provides the supreme law of the country
What is a Democracy • A type of government in which the rule is by the people • Direct Democracy vs. Representative Democracy • Republic • A representative democracy
Separation of Powers • Power is divided up between three branches • Legislative Branch • Congress • Makes the laws • Executive Branch • President • Carries out the laws • Judicial Branch • Supreme Court
Federalism: • Article 4, Section 4: The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union a republican form of government, … • 10th Amendment: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Federalism • Sharing power between the state and national government • The states all have their own constitutions. • Each state has their own government and makes their own laws. • Each state has a court system to interpret those laws • The federal government makes laws and interprets laws also.
Powers Denied to the States (article 1, section 10) • Enter treaties, coin money, • Pass taxes on imports or exports • Maintain an army or navy, going to war. • Add this to your note guide.
Article 6, Section 2 (Supremacy Clause) • 2: This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.
Enumerated Powers • powers listed in the Constitution and exclusively given to the federal government • Article 1, Section 8, C1-17
Implied power • A power that is not specifically stated in the Constitution, but is hinted at. • An implied power must be associated with an enumerated power. • Implied powers derive from the necessary and proper clause found in (Article 1, section 8, clause 18) of the Constitution
Necessary and Proper Clause 18: To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers… Allow federal government power to make any laws as long as the law can be tied to an enumerated power.