Chapter 6 Vocab The South and West Transformed (1865-1900)
Reservations • Specific areas set aside by the government for the Indians’ use. • Native Americans were FORCED to move onto these specific reservations. • 2nd Trail of Tears
Sand Creek Massacre • Took place along Sand Creek in E. CO. • American troops opened fire on unarmed Cheyenne and Arapaho men, women, and children who raised the American flag as a sign of friendship.
Sitting Bull • Belonged to the Hunkpapa band, one of the Lakota Sioux groups. • Led resistance against American settlers who squatted on Sioux hunting grounds.
Battle of Little Big Horn • “Custer’s last stand” • Battle between at least 2000 Native Americans, led by Crazy Horse and 250 American soldiers led by Custer. • Crazy Horse, and his men killed Custer and all of his men.
Chief Joseph • Leader of the Nez Perces • Led resistance to the forced relocation of the Nez Perces to a smaller reservation. • Led many members of his tribe to Canada, but was forced to surrender just miles from the border. • “I will fight no more forever”
Ghost Dance • A Native American religious revival • It was thought that the ritual would banish white settlers and restore the buffalo to the Plains. • Led to the arrest of Sitting Bull.
Wounded Knee • Confrontation over the arrest of Sitting Bull. • Sitting Bull was killed at this battle. • More than 100 men, women, and children were killed here.
Assimilation • Adopting the culture and civilization of whites. • Part II and III on your own.
Dawes Act • 1887-Replaced the reservation system with an allotment system • Each Indian family was granted a 160 acre farmstead. • Meant to force Indians to assimilate.
Transcontinental Railroad • A railway extending from coast to coast • Begun in 1862 • Federal government awarded loans and land grants to two private railraod companies, Central Pacific, and Union Pacific. • Built mostly by Chinese and Irish immigrants.
Exodusters • African Americans who moved westward after the Civil War.
Homestead Act of 1862 • Offered 160 acres of public act to anyone who met the following requirements: • Applicants had to be at least 21 • American citizen or immigrant who had filed for citizenship • $10 registration fee • Build a house and live on the claim at least 6 months of the year • Farm the land and “improve” it for 5 years before they could claim ownership.
Populism“The People’s Party” • Movement to increase farmers’ political power and to work for legislation in their interest.
Bimetallism • Paper currency is backed by both gold and silver, as opposed to sticking strongly to the gold standard.
Cross of Gold Speech • Speech made by the Democratic candidate for president in 1896, William Jennings Bryan. • In the speech, he warned against “crucifying mankind on a cross of gold” or sticking to the gold standard. • Became the democratic presidential nominee as well as the populist party nominee.