Levels of Organization Mr. Mah Living Environment 09/15/09 Lecture 2
Warm-up • Classify the following things as Living or Non-Living Organisms. • For each of the Non-Living Organisms, write which of the life processes it is missing. • Virus • Potato (uncooked) • Maggot • Chicken Egg (unfertilized)
Virus – Non-Living • Cannot reproduce on its own • Potato – Living • If you leave the potato out, it grows! • Maggot – Living • Fly Larvae • Chicken Egg – Non-living • SINGLE CELL • No Respiration, no synthesis
Types of Organisms Unicellular Multicellular Multi = more than 1 Organism is made up of more than 1 cell Uni = one These organisms have only ONE cell
Unicellular Organisms Can still do everything they need to stay alive Benefits over multicellular organisms: Need fewer resources Can live in harsher conditions Ex: Some algae, protists, and eukaryotes (yeasts) Uni = ONE
Multicellular Organisms Much more complex than unicellular organisms Ex: Plants, animals, some protists, and most fungi are multicellular
Multicellular Organism Characteristics Larger size = have less predators and have more options of things to eat Longer life = organism will continue to live even if a single celldies Specialization – each type of cell has a specific job, making the organism more efficient
Levels of Organization are important when we move from unicellular organisms to multicellular organisms • We are getting more and more complex • Think about our bodies. Not all of our cells do the same things. There is some type of organization.
Levels of Organization • Level 1 - Cells • Level 2 – Tissues • Level 3 - Organs • Level 4 – Organ Systems • Level 5 - Organism
Level 1 - Cells Cells are the smallest unit of life. Basic unit of structure in all living things May have specific functions (jobs) in the body Ex: Blood cells, nerve cells, muscle cells
Level 2 - Tissue A group of cells that work together to do a specific job Made of up of cells that are similar in structure and function Humans have 4 basic types Ex: Heart Tissue, Muscle Tissue, Fat Tissue.
The Heart • What Types of Tissue is the heart made out of?
Muscle Tissue • Connective Tissue • Nervous Tissue
Level 3 - Organs Made up of 2 or more tissues that work together to perform a specific activity Ex: Stomach – muscle tissue moves food, special tissues make chemicals to digest food, connective tissue holds stomach together, nervous tissue sends messages back and forth between the stomach and brain
Level 4 – Organ Systems Organ system = group of organs working together to perform a specific function Each organ system has a specific job Ex: Digestive system is made of several organs including the stomach and intestines
The Human Body has 11 organ systems • Circulatory • Digestive • Endocrine • Excretory (urinary) • Immune(lymphatic) • Integumentary (skin) • Muscular • Nervous • Reproductive • Respiratory • Skeletal.
Level 5 - Organism • Entire living things that can carry out all basic life processes. Meaning they can take in materials, release energy from food, release wastes, grow, respond to the environment, and reproduce. • Usually made up of organ systems, but an organism may be made up of only one cell such as bacteria or protist. • Examples - bacteria, amoeba, mushroom, sunflower, human
Structure of Animals Cells -basic unit of an animal’s structure -becomes specialized _______________________________ Tissues -made of cells that work together to perform a specific function __________________________________________ Organs -made of different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function ____________________________________________________ Organ Systems -made of organs that work together to perform a specific function _____________________________________________________________ Organisms