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Levels of Organization

Levels of Organization

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Levels of Organization

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  1. Levels of Organization Biomolecules: In this section of the course we will examine carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

  2. Biomolecules • Our examination of these molecules will consist of the following features. These are the features you will be responsible for on the exam. • General Characteristics • Function • Associated Foods • No chemical structure

  3. Carbohydrates: General Characteristics • Carbohydrates are either small, water-soluble sugars (glucose or fructose) or chains, such as starch or cellulose. • If containing: • 1 sugar molecule = monosaccharide • 2 sugar molecules = disaccharide • 2+ sugar molecules = polysacharides

  4. Carbohydrates: General Characteristics • Carbohydrates are important energy sources for most organisms • The general formula is (CH2 O)n • Most of carbon atoms have a hydrogen ( -H ) and a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to them. • When they are dissolved in water the backbone of a sugar usually “circles up” into a ring. • In ring form, sugar can link together to make bigger molecules. • They are molecules rich in energy.

  5. CARBOHYDRATES (CYCLING) OH H-C=O -C-OH + 0=C- -C-O-C- H-C-OH H2COH O HO-C-H H-C-OH CH OH H-C-OH OH OH H-C-OH OH H GLUCOSE

  6. CARBOHYDRATES (CYCLING) OH OH H-C -C-OH + 0=C- -C-O-C- H-C-OH H2COH O O HO-C-H H-C-OH CH OH H-C OH OH H-C-OH OH H

  7. Carbohydrates: General Characteristics Monosaccharides • Simple sugar • Most are either metabolized, or are linked together to form disaccharides or polysaccharides • Short life span in cells • Glucose

  8. OTHER MONOSACCHARIDES HC=O O HCOH HOCH2 OH HCOH H H HCOH H H H2COH OH H DEOXYRIBOSE RIBOSE

  9. Carbohydrates: General Characteristics Disaccharides • Short term energy storage • Two monosaccharides bonded together. • C-O-C • Sucrose

  10. Carbohydrates: General Characteristics Polysaccharides • Long term energy storage. • They are polimers formed by monosaccharides, that are bonded together. • Starch, Cellulose, Glycogen

  11. POLYSACCHARIDES H2COH H2COH O O CH CH O O GLYCOGEN GLUCOSE alfa1 beta 4 The energetic reserve of the animals is found principally in the skeletal muscle.

  12. POLYSACCHARIDES H2COH H2COH O O CH O CH O Is the most abundant organic molecule in our planet. CELLULOSE GLUCOSE beta 1 beta4

  13. Carbohydrates: Function • Monosaccharides – Important energy source for cells; subunit of which most polysaccharides are made. • Disaccharides – Principal sugar transported throughout bodies of land plants. Energy Transport. • Polysaccharides – Energy storage in plants and animals, structural material in plants

  14. Carbohydrates: Associated Foods • Monosaccharides – Fruit sugar • Disaccharides – Milk sugar, Sugar for your coffee • Polysaccharides – Starch (plants), Glycogen (animals)

  15. Lipids: General Characteristics • Lipids are a diverse assortment of molecules all of which share two important features. • 1st lipids contain large regions composed almost entirely of hydrogen and carbon, with nonpolar carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds. • 2nd these nonpolar regions make lipids hydrophobic or insoluble in water.

  16. Lipids: General Characteristics • There are three classes of lipids • 1. oils, fats, and waxes, which are similar in structure and contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

  17. FATS (Triglycerides) CH2-O- C O CH-O OC CH2-O OC

  18. Lipids : Other Information • The difference between saturated fatty acids (fats) and unsaturated fatty acids (oils) is that saturated have all single bonds in their carbon chains (as many Hydrogens as possible) where as unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds (not maximum Hydrogens) creating kinks.

  19. Lipids: General Characteristics • 2. phospholipids, structurally similar to oils but also containing phosphorus and nitrogen.

  20. PHOSPHOLIPIDS CH2-O C O CH-OOC O CH2-O-P-0-R OH

  21. Lipids : Other Information

  22. Lipids: General Characteristics • 3. the fused-ring family of steroids

  23. Lipids: Function • Lipids have a wide variety of functions, energy-storage, water.proofing, bulk of membranes, hormones • Fats and Oils – are used for long-term energy storage in both plants and animals. Eg. ADIPOCYTES in Bears. Also provide protection. Eg. Kidneys and yellow marrow. • Waxes – form a waterproof coating over the leaves and stems of land plants. Animals also synthesize waxes for water proofing, as well as insects. Structures such as beehives.

  24. Lipids: Function • Phospholipids – form the plasma membrane that separates the inside of a cell from the outside world. • Steroids – cholesterol which is a vital component of the membranes of animal cells. From this other horomose such as testosterone are produced.

  25. Lipids: Associated Foods • Fats and oils – animal fat, french fries • Waxes – plants or bees wax • Phospholipids – cell membranes • Steroids – egg yolks (cholesterol)

  26. OTHER LIPID FUNCTIONS THERMAL ISOLATOR ANIMALS IN COLD AREAS ELECTRIC ISOLATOR MYELIN SHEATHS IN NEURONS

  27. Proteins: General Characteristics • Proteins are molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids. • Proteins perform many functions, this is made possible by the diversity of protein sturctures. • Enzymes are one the most important forms of proteins and will be discussed in detail later in the course.

  28. Proteins: Structure • Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Each amino acid contains the same basic structure. • This is a central carbon bonded to four different functional groups, amino group, carboxyl group, a hydrogen and a variable group.

  29. Proteins: Structure • The nitrogen of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid is joined to the carbon of the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid by a single covalent bond, this bond is called a peptide bond. • And the resulting chain of two amino acids is called a peptide. • More amino acids are added one by one, until the protein is complete.

  30. Proteins: Structure

  31. Proteins: Structure • Proteins have four levels of structure. • Primary structure is the sequence of amino acids that make up the protein. This sequence is coded by the genes.

  32. Proteins: Structure • Secondary Structures are formed by slight attractions of bonded hydrogens. Some slightly positive some slightly negative. This causes one of two forms in many proteins. • These structures are either a helix (like DNA) or a pleated sheet

  33. Proteins: Structure • Tertiary Structures are complex three dimensional structures. • Disulfide bridges formed between cysteine amino acids may bring otherwise distant parts of a single peptide close together. • The most important result of these structures is whether they become water soluble or water insoluble depending on if hydrophobic or hydrophillic amino acids face out.

  34. Proteins: Structure

  35. Proteins: Structure • Quaternary Structure is the final level of structure in proteins and involves the attraction of different tertiary structures together.

  36. Proteins: Function • The functions of proteins are diverse, here are some examples • Structure - collagen in skin; keratin in hair, nails, horns • Movement – Actin and myosin in muscle • Defense – Antibodies in bloodstream • Storage - Zeatin in corn seeds • Signals – Growth hormone in bloodstream • Catalysis – Enzymes catalyze nearly every chemical reaction in our bodies

  37. Nucleic Acids: General Characteristics • The amino acid sequence of every protein in your body is specidied by the genetic instructions residing in the nuclei of your cells • This brings us to the fourth biomolecules, nucleic acids which make up genes • Nucleic acids are long chains of similar but not identical subunits called nucleotides

  38. Nucleic Acids: General Characteristics • All nucleotides have a three part structure: a five carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing base that differs among nucleotides.

  39. Nucleic Acids: General Characteristics • There are two types of nucleotides, ribose and deoxyribose. • There are four different nitrogen containing bases for deoxyribose nucleotides; adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. • There are four different nitrogen containing bases for ribose nucleotides; adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil

  40. Nucleic Acids: General Characteristics • Nucleotides are strung together with the phosphate group of one bonding to the sugar of the next. • Dyoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is formed from long chains and is the code for genetice information. • Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is copied from the DNA and directs the production of protiens

  41. Nucleic Acids: Function • DNA – code for proteins. • RNA – carries genetic code to cytoplasm • cAMP – carries information from the cell membrane to other molecules in the cell • ATP – carry energy from place to place within a cell • Coenzymes – promote and guide chemical reactions

  42. Different Functions Of Biomolecules • Carbohydrates – energy supply, energy transport, energy storage, structure • Lipids – energy-storage, water.proofing, bulk of membranes, and hormones • Proteins – structure, movement, defense, storage, signals and catalysts • Nucleic Acids – hold code for protein, carry code from one location to another, supply energy, and assist enzymes