Levels of Organization • Identify cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems as levels of organization in the biosphere. • Identify the levels of organization in the biosphere including cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, • as well as organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems.
Levels of Organization • Cell—Basic unit of structure and function in organisms. • Some organisms, like bacteria and protists, are unicellular (made entirely of one cell). • Some organisms, like fungi, plants, and animals, are multicellular (made of many cells). • Bacteria have prokaryotic cells. • Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals have eukaryotic cells. • In multicellular organisms, cells exhibit cell specialization. They take on specific jobs and look different from each other. • The cells also exhibit division of labor. They split up the work of the organism.
Levels of Organization • Tissues—Groups of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function. • 3 major tissue types in plants • Transport tissue • Protective tissue • Ground tissue • 4 major tissue types in animals • Epithelial tissue (Protective) • Connective tissue • Muscle tissue • Nervous tissue
Levels of Organization • Organs—structures made of different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function. • Examples • Heart • Bone • Lungs • Stomach • Small intestine • Liver • Large Intestine • Gall Bladder • Plant Roots • Plant Stems • Plant Leaves
Levels of Organization • Organ Systems—Groups of organs that work together to perform a specific function. • Examples: • Digestive system • Circulatory system • Excretory system • Respiratory system • Nervous system • Muscular system • Skeletal system • Integumentary system (skin) • Endocrine system • Immune system • Reproductive system • Vascular system in plants
Levels of Organization • Organism—A complete, individual living thing. • Examples: • A single person • A single plant • A single bacterium • A single protist
Levels of Organization • Population—Groups of organisms of the same species (kind) that live together in a particular area at a particular time. • Examples: All the mice in Buckhorn • All the people in New Market • All the earthworms in your flower bed. • All the roses in a rose garden. • All the mushrooms (of a particular kind) in a meadow.
Levels of Organization • Community—All of the populations of organisms that inhabit the same area at the same time. • Examples: • All of the species of grasses, insects, shrubs, mice, and bacteria that live in a particular field.
Levels of Organization • Ecosystem—All of the communities of organisms that inhabit an area as well as all of the nonliving components of the area that the organisms interact with. (Communities + Environment). • Examples: • All of the trees, plants, and animals in a forest plus all of the water, rocks, air, wind, etc…
Levels of Organization • Biosphere—The region of Earth that supports all life. All of the environments and organisms on Earth.