Division of Labor & The First Level Within multi-cellular organisms there is division of labor. Division of labor means that the work (labor) of keeping the organism alive is divided (division) among the different parts of the body. Each part has a specific job to do and as each part does its special job, it works in harmony with all the other parts. The arrangement of specialized parts within a living thing is sometimes referred to as levels of organization. Cells of course, are the first level of organization.
Cells: LOTS of Different Kinds!Here are two examples. Can you guess what kind? Nerve Cells Skin Cells
Second Level: Tissues In any multi-cellular organism, cells rarely work alone. Cells that are similar in structure and function are usually joined together to form tissues. Tissues are the second level of organization. There are four basic/major types of tissues in the human body: Muscle tissue, nerve tissue, connective tissue, and epithelial tissue.(There are other kinds of tissues besides these.) Other kinds of tissue include bone tissue (a strong solid tissue that gives you shape and support) made of bone cells in your body form bone tissue. Blood cells in your body are part of blood tissue, a liquid tissue responsible for transporting food and oxygen throughout the body.
Let’s Look Again… Here are the cells we saw before, but if you look closely, you can see that they all look similar. Nerve cells working together make nerve tissue, and skin cells make up a special type of epithelial tissue.
Taken One At A Time…. Connective tissue connects and supports parts of the body. Blood, fat, ligaments, cartilage, bones, and tendons are all connective tissues. Nerve tissue carries messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of the body. The brain, spinal cord, and nerves are made up of nerve tissue. Epithelial tissue covers and lines the surfaces of your body and organs, inside and out. They primarily serve as protective barriers. Skin is one example. Muscle tissue can contract, or shorten. Because of this, muscle tissue makes parts of your body move.
Organs: Level Three Tissues are further organized into organs, the third level of organization in living things. Organs are groups of different tissues that work together. Your heart, for example, is made up of muscle tissue, connective tissue, and nervous tissue. You are probably familiar with the name of many of the body organs. The brain, heart, kidneys, and skin are some examples.
Level Three: OrgansWhen a bunch of different types of tissues work together, they form an organ. There are many organs in the body. How many can you name?? GET IT????
Level 3 - Organs The heart is primarily made up of muscle tissue, but also contains connective and nervous tissue.
Level 3 - Organs • Made up of tissues that work together to perform a specific activity • Examples - heart, brain, skin
Organ Systems: Level Four Like cells and tissues, organs seldom work alone. They “cooperate” with one another and form specific major functions. Organ systems are the fourth level of organization in living things. An organ system is a group of organs working together to perform a specific function for the organism. An example would be your digestive system. It is made up of several organs such as your esophagus, stomach, and intestines.
Level Four: Organ Systems Each organ in your body is part of an organ system, a group of organs that work together to perform a major function. For example, your heart is part of your circulatory system, which carries oxygen and other materials throughout your body. Besides the heart, blood vessels are organs that work in your circulatory system.
Level 4 – Organ Systems • Groups of two or more organs that work together to perform a specific function for the organism. • Examples - circulatory system, nervous system, skeletal system
The nervous system detects and interprets information from the environment outside the body and from within the body; controls most body functions. The immune system fights disease. The excretory system removes wastes. The endocrine system controls many body processes by means of chemicals, like hormones.
The muscular system enables the body to move; moves food through the digestive system, and keeps the heart beating. The skeletal system supports and protects the body, and works with the muscular system to allow movement; makes and stores blood cells and stores some other materials.
The digestive system takes food into the body, breaks the food down into smaller particles, and absorbs the digested materials. The respiratory system takes oxygen into the body and eliminates carbon dioxide. The reproductive system produces sex cells that can unite with other sex cells to create offspring; controls male and female characteristics.
Organisms: Level Five Humans are an organism. Dogs, trees and buttercups are also organisms. Even a unicellular (one celled) bacterium is a organism. An organism is an entire living thing that carries out all the basic life functions. The organism is the fifth level of organization.
Level 5 - Organism • Entire living things that can carry out all basic life processes. Meaning they can take in materials, release energy from food, release wastes, grow, respond to the environment, and reproduce.
Cells tissues organs organ systems organism. Each level of organization interacts with every other level. The smooth functioning of a complex organism, is the result of all its various parts working together.
Let’s Review…. • 1st Level: Cells working together form • 2nd Level: Tissues, which can form • 3rd Level: Organs, which work together to form • 4th Level: Organ Systems, which work together to form • 5th Level: Organisms!