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Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 PowerPoint Presentation
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Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200

Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200

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Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200

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  1. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 Osmosis: Diffusion of Water • Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. • In a cell, water always moves to reach an equal concentration on both sides of the membrane.

  2. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 Osmosis: Diffusion of Water • The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called osmosis. • Regulating the water flow through the plasma membrane is an important factor in maintaining homeostasis within a cell.

  3. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 What controls osmosis? • Unequal distribution of particles, called a concentration gradient, is one factor that controls osmosis. Before Osmosis After Osmosis Water molecule Sugar molecule Selectively permeable membrane

  4. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 Cells in an isotonic solution • Most cells whether in multicellular or unicellular organisms, are subject to osmosis because they are surrounded by water solutions. H2O H2O Water Molecule Dissolved Molecule

  5. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 Cells in an isotonic solution • In an isotonic solution, the concentration of dissolved substances in the solution is the same as the concentration of dissolved substances inside the cell. H2O H2O Water Molecule Dissolved Molecule

  6. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 Cells in an isotonic solution • In an isotonic solution, water molecules move into and out of the cell at the same rate, and cells retain their normal shape. H2O H2O Water Molecule Dissolved Molecule

  7. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 Cells in an isotonic solution • A plant cell has its normal shape and pressure in an isotonic solution.

  8. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 Cells in a hypotonic solution • In a hypotonic solution, water enters a cell by osmosis, causing the cell to swell. H2O H2O Water Molecule Dissolved Molecule

  9. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 Cells in a hypotonic solution • Plant cells swell beyond their normal size as pressure increases.

  10. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 Cells in a hypertonic solution • In a hypertonic solution, water leaves a cell by osmosis, causing the cell to shrink. H2O H2O Water Molecule Dissolved Molecule

  11. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 Cells in a hypertonic solution • Plant cells lose pressure as the plasma membrane shrinks away from the cell wall.

  12. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 Active Transport • Movement of materials through a membrane against a concentration gradient is called active transport and requires energy from the cell. Carrier proteins Concentration gradient Plasma membrane Cellular energy Step 1 Step 2

  13. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 Transport of Large Particles • Endocytosis is a process by which a cell surrounds and takes in material from its environment. Nucleus Wastes Digestion Exocytosis Endocytosis

  14. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 Transport of Large Particles • The material is engulfed and enclosed by a portion of the cell’s plasma membrane. Nucleus Wastes Digestion Endocytosis Exocytosis

  15. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 Transport of Large Particles • The resulting vacuole with its contents moves to the inside of the cell. Nucleus Wastes Digestion Endocytosis Exocytosis

  16. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 Transport of Large Particles • Exocytosis is the expulsion or secretion of materials from a cell. Nucleus Wastes Digestion Exocytosis Endocytosis

  17. Section 8.1 Summary – pages 195 - 200 Transport of Large Particles • Endocytosis and exocytosis both move masses of material and both require energy. Nucleus Wastes Digestion Endocytosis Exocytosis

  18. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Cell Size Limitations • The cells that make up a multicellular organism come in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. • Considering this wide range of cells sizes, why then can’t most organisms be just one giant cell?

  19. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Diffusion limits cell size • Although diffusion is a fast and efficient process over short distances, it becomes slow and inefficient as the distances become larger. • Because of the slow rate of diffusion, organisms can’t be just one giant-sized cell.

  20. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 DNA limits cell size • The cell cannot survive unless there is enough DNA to support the protein needs of the cell. • In many large cells, more than one nucleus is present. • Large amounts of DNA in many nuclei ensure that cell activities are carried out quickly and efficiently.

  21. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Surface area-to-volume ratio 4 mm 4 mm 2 mm 1 mm 2 mm 1 mm 1 mm 2 mm Surface area = 6 mm2 Volume = 1 mm3 4 mm Surface area = 24 mm2 Volume = 8 mm3 • As a cell’s size increases, its volume increases much faster than its surface area.

  22. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Surface area-to-volume ratio 4 mm 4 mm 2 mm 1 mm 2 mm 1 mm 1 mm 2 mm Surface area = 6 mm2 Volume = 1 mm3 4 mm Surface area = 24 mm2 Volume = 8 mm3 • If cell size doubled, the cell would require eight times more nutrients and would have eight times more waste to excrete.

  23. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Surface area-to-volume ratio 4 mm 4 mm 2 mm 1 mm 2 mm 1 mm 1 mm 2 mm Surface area = 6 mm2 Volume = 1 mm3 4 mm Surface area = 24 mm2 Volume = 8 mm3 • The surface area, however, would increase by a factor of only four.

  24. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Surface area-to-volume ratio 4 mm 4 mm 2 mm 1 mm 2 mm 1 mm 1 mm 2 mm Surface area = 6 mm2 Volume = 1 mm3 4 mm Surface area = 24 mm2 Volume = 8 mm3 • The cell would either starve to death or be poisoned from the buildup of waste products.

  25. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Cell Reproduction • Cell division is the process by which new cells are produced from one cell. • Cell division results in two cells that are identical to the original, parent cell.

  26. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 The discovery of chromosomes • Structures, which contain DNA and become darkly colored when stained, are called chromosomes. • Chromosomes are the carriers of the genetic material that is copied and passed from generation to generation of cells. • Accurate transmission of chromosomes during cell division is critical.

  27. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 The structure of eukaryotic chromosomes Centromere Sister chromatids Supercoil within chromosome Chromosome Continued coiling within supercoil Histone H1 Nucleosome DNA

  28. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 The Cell Cycle • The cell cycle is the sequence of growth and division of a cell. • The majority of a cell’s life is spent in the growth period known as interphase. Interphase

  29. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 The Cell Cycle • Following interphase, a cell enters its period of nuclear division called mitosis. • Following mitosis, the cytoplasm divides, separating the two daughter cells. Mitosis

  30. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Interphase: A Busy Time • Interphase, the busiest phase of the cell cycle, is divided into three parts. Interphase DNA synthesis and replication Centrioles replicate; cell prepares for division Rapid growth and metabolic activity

  31. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Interphase: A Busy Time • During the first part, the cell grows and protein production is high. Interphase Rapid growth and metabolic activity

  32. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Interphase: A Busy Time • In the next part of interphase, the cell copies its chromosomes. Interphase DNA synthesis and replication

  33. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Interphase: A Busy Time • After the chromosomes have been duplicated, the cell enters another shorter growth period in which mitochondria and other organelles are manufactured and cell parts needed for cell division are assembled. Interphase Centrioles replicate; cell prepares for division

  34. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 The Phases of Mitosis • The four phases of mitosis are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

  35. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Prophase: The first phase of mitosis • During prophase, the chromatin coils to form visible chromosomes. Spindle fibers Disappearing nuclear envelope Doubled chromosome

  36. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Prophase: The first phase of mitosis • The two halves of the doubled structure are called sister chromatids. Sister chromatids

  37. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Prophase: The first phase of mitosis • Sister chromatids are held together by a structure called a centromere, which plays a role in chromosome movement during mitosis. Centromere

  38. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Metaphase: The second stage of mitosis • During metaphase, the chromosomes move to the equator of the spindle. Centromere Sister chromatids

  39. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Anaphase: The third phase of mitosis • During anaphase, the centromeres split and the sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell.

  40. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Telophase: The fourth phase of mitosis • During telophase, two distinct daughter cells are formed. The cells separate as the cell cycle proceeds into the next interphase. Nuclear envelope reappears Two daughter cells are formed

  41. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Cytokinesis • Following telophase, the cell’s cytoplasm divides in a process called cytokinesis. • Cytokinesis differs between plants and animals. • Toward the end of telophase in animal cells, the plasma membrane pinches in along the equator.

  42. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Cytokinesis • Plant cells have a rigid cell wall, so the plasma membrane does not pinch in. • A structure known as the cell plate is laid down across the cell’s equator. • A cell membrane forms around each cell, and new cell walls form on each side of the cell plate until separation is complete.

  43. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Results of Mitosis • When mitosis is complete, unicellular organisms remain as single cells. • In multicellular organisms, cell growth and reproduction result in groups of cells that work together as tissue to perform a specific function.

  44. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Results of Mitosis • Tissues organize in various combinations to form organs that perform more complex roles within the organism. • Multiple organs that work together form an organ system.

  45. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Results of Mitosis Click image to view movie.

  46. Section 8.3 Summary – pages 211 - 213 Normal Control of the Cell Cycle Proteins and enzymes control the cell cycle • The cell cycle is controlled by proteins called cyclins and a set of enzymes that attach to the cyclin and become activated. • Occasionally, cells lose control of the cell cycle.

  47. Section 8.3 Summary – pages 211 - 213 Normal Control of the Cell Cycle • This uncontrolled dividing of cells can result from the failure to produce certain enzymes, the overproduction of enzymes, or the production of other enzymes at the wrong time. • Cancer is a malignant growth resulting from uncontrolled cell division.

  48. Section 8.3 Summary – pages 211 - 213 Normal Control of the Cell Cycle • Enzyme production is directed by genes located on the chromosomes. • A gene is a segment of DNA that controls the production of a protein.