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  1. Letter to a B Student 1-1.1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement I. Read aloud Read the following passage aloud, making a pause between sense groups. Read aloud Audiovisual supplements Principles Are Lighthouses By Stephen R. Covey It was a dark and stormy night./ The officer on the bridge/ came to the captain and said,/ “Captain,/ Captain,/ there is a light in our sea lane/ and they won’t move.”/ “What do you mean they won’t move?/ Tell them to move./ Tell them starboard right now.”/ The signal was sent out,/ “Starboard,/ starboard./” The signal came back,/ “Starboard yourself.”/ “I can’t believe this./ What’s going on here?/ Let them know who I am./” The signal was sent out,/ “This is the mighty Missouri, /starboard./” The signal came back,/ “This is the lighthouse.”/

  2. Letter to a B Student 1-1.2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement My friends,/ correct principles are lighthouses,/ they do not move./ They are natural laws./ We cannot break them./ We can only break ourselves against them./ We might as well learn them,/ accommodate them,/ utilize them and be grateful for them. /Then it enlarges us/ and emancipates us/ and empowers us./ T.S. Eliot once said something/ I think is appropriate/ as we come to the conclusion of our visit together./ He said,/ “We shall never cease from striving,/ and the end of all of our striving/ will be to arrive where we began/ and to know the place for the first time.”/ Read aloud Audiovisual supplements

  3. Letter to a B Student 1-2.1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement II. Audiovisual supplements Read aloud Film episode: American Beauty Audiovisual supplements Questions: 1. What’s Ricky describing? 2. Do you think it is a kind of beauty? Why? Answers for reference: • He is describing a kind of beauty — a plastic bag dancing in the wind. • 2. Open answer.

  4. Letter to a B Student 1-2-2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Ricky: It was one of those days where it’s a minute away from snowing, and there was this electricity in the air. You can almost hear it. Right? And this bag was just dancing ... with me, like a little kid begging me to play with it, for 15 minutes. That’s the day I realized that there was this entire life behind things and this incredibly benevolent force that wanted me to know that there was no reason to be afraid ... ever. Video’s a poor excuse, I know, but it helps me remember. I need to remember. Sometimes there’s so much … beauty … in the world. I feel like I can’t take it … and my heart … is just going to … cave in. Read aloud Audiovisual supplements

  5. Letter to a B Student 1-2-FILM Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Read aloud Audiovisual supplements ■

  6. Letter to a B Student 2-1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement I. Text analysis The text is a letter to a B student. In the letter the author analyzes what the grade means and doesn’t mean, and tells the student the way we should regard grades. In the end the author illustrates the importance of learning and gives encouragement to the student. Text analysis Structural analysis Cultural background

  7. Letter to a B Student 2-2-1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement II. Structural analysis Text analysis Paragraph 1 — introduction Structural analysis Paragraphs 2 – 5 — purpose of writing: to put your disappointment in perspective by considering exactly what your grade means and doesn’t mean Cultural background distinction between the student as a performer in the classroom and the student as a human being Paragraphs 6 – 8 — Paragraphs 9 – 10 — perspective: the way we should regard grades

  8. Letter to a B Student 2-3-1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement III. Cultural background American Education System versus Asian Education System America is the land of opportunity, which is famous for its democratic society and unique culture. People in America like to be free, to do whatever they want to do without any restrictions. This belief is reflected in the American educational system. In American schools, teachers and students are at the same social level. Students are encouraged to exchange their own opinions with the teacher. From an early age, students in the American educational system have been taught that they have the ability to achieve whatever they want to be, but rarely been told how they can achieve their goal. Because of this belief in natural born ability in the land of opportunity, students receive very little pressure in school, so whatever they do in school is totally based on their personal beliefs. The advantage of this kind of educational system is that, it really develops student’s individual Text analysis Structural analysis Cultural background

  9. Letter to a B Student 2-3-2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement thinking skills, and they are encouraged to try out different options to achieve their goal. In Asian countries, the cultures and social standards are totally different from the U.S. In those countries most of their values are based on Confucius which heavily stresses education and group values. One’s social status is based on his/her education level. Starting from elementary school, students have been taught that if you want to be successful in life you must have a good education, and any other way is considered inappropriate. In the Asian school systems, educators rank students by their scores. So, if your rank is high you are a good student and you will have a good chance to get into a good school. If your rank is low then you are a bad student and it is a sign that you are going to be a loser. Nobody cares if you are talented or not. Under these pressures, students compete hard with other students. They study five hours a day just trying to gain more Text analysis Structural analysis Cultural background

  10. Letter to a B Student 2-3-3 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement points in a test so they can get a higher rank. Through these efforts of setting high standards it’s no surprise that Asian students rank top in the academic achievement. The advantage of this kind of system is that the school systems can provide the society year after year with high quality personnel of the same academic standard. Text analysis Structural analysis Cultural background

  11. Letter to a B Student 3.text1-S Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Letter to a B Student Robert Oliphant Your final grade for the course is B. A respectable grade. Far superior to the “Gentleman’s C” that served as the norm a couple of generations ago. But in those days A’s were rare: only two out of twenty-five, as I recall. Whatever our norm is, it has shifted upward, with the result that you are probably disappointed at not doing better. I’m certain that nothing I can say will remove that feeling of disappointment, particularly in a climate where grades determine eligibility for graduate school and special programs.

  12. Letter to a B Student 3.text2-S Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Disappointment. It’s the stuff bad dreams are made of: dreams of failure, inadequacy, loss of position and good repute. The essence of success is that there’s never enough of it to go round in a zero-sum game where one person’s winning must be offset by another’s losing, one person’s joy offset by another’s disappointment. You’ve grown up in a society where winning is not the most important thing — it’s the only thing.To lose, to fail, to go under, to go broke — these are deadly sins in a world where prosperity in the present is seen as a sure sign of salvation in the future. In a different society, your disappointment might be something you could shrug away. But not in ours. My purpose in writing you is to put your disappointment in perspective by considering exactly what your grade means and doesn’t mean. I do not propose to argue here that grades are unimportant. Rather, I hope to show you that your grade, taken at face value, is apt to be dangerously misleading, both to you and to others.

  13. Letter to a B Student 3.text3-S Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement As a symbol on your college transcript, your grade simply means that you have successfully completed a specific course of study, doing so at a certain level of proficiency. The level of your proficiency has been determined by your performance of rather conventional tasks: taking tests, writing papers and reports, and so forth. Your performance is generally assumed to correspond to the knowledge you have acquired and will retain. But this assumption, as we both know, is questionable; it may well be that you’ve actually gotten much more out of the course than your grade indicates — or less. Lacking more precise measurement tools, we must interpret your B as a rather fuzzy symbol at best, representing a questionable judgment of your mastery of the subject.

  14. Letter to a B Student 3.text4-S Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Your grade does not represent a judgment of your basic ability or of your character. Courage, kindness, wisdom, good humor — these are the important characteristics of our species. Unfortunately they are not part of our curriculum. But they are important: crucially so, because they are always in short supply. If you value these characteristics in yourself, you will be valued — and far more so than those whose identities are measured only by little marks on a piece of paper. Your B is a price tag on a garment that is quite separate from the living, breathing human being underneath. The student as performer; the student as human being. The distinction is one we should always keep in mind. I first learned it years ago when I got out of the service and went back to college. There were a lot of us then: older than the norm, in a hurry to get our degrees and move on, impatient with the tests and rituals of academic life. Not an easy group to handle.

  15. Letter to a B Student 3.text5-S Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement One instructor handled us very wisely, it seems to me. On Sunday evenings in particular, he would make a point of stopping in at a local bar frequented by many of the GI-Bill students. There he would sit and drink, joke, and swap stories with men in his class, men who had but recently put away their uniforms and identities: former platoon sergeants, bomber pilots, corporals, captains, lieutenants, commanders, majors — even a lieutenant colonel, as I recall. They enjoyed his company greatly, as he theirs. The next morning he would walk into class and give these same men a test. A hard test. A test on which he usually flunked about half of them.

  16. Letter to a B Student 3.text6-S Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Oddly enough, the men whom he flunked did not resent it. Nor did they resent him for shifting suddenly from a friendly gear to a coercive one. Rather, they loved him, worked harder and harder at his course as the semester moved along, and ended up with a good grasp of his subject — economics. The technique is still rather difficult for me to explain; but I believe it can be described as one in which a clear distinction was made between the student as classroom performer and the student as human being. A good distinction to make. A distinction that should put your B in perspective — and your disappointment.

  17. Letter to a B Student 3.text7-S Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Perspective. It is important to recognize that human beings, despite differences in class and educational labeling, are fundamentally hewn from the same material and knit together by common bonds of fear and joy, suffering and achievement. Warfare, sickness, disasters, public and private — these are the larger coordinates of life. To recognize them is to recognize that social labels are basically irrelevant and misleading. It is true that these labels are necessary in the functioning of a complex society as a way of letting us know who should be trusted to do what, with the result that we need to make distinctions on the basis of grades, degrees, rank, and responsibility. But these distinctions should never be taken seriously in human terms, either in the way we look at others or in the way we look at ourselves.

  18. Letter to a B Student 3.text8-S Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Even in achievement terms, your B label does not mean that you are permanently defined as a B achievement person. I’m well aware that B students tend to get B’s in the courses they take later on, just as A students tend to get A’s. But academic work is a narrow, neatly defined highway compared to the unmapped rolling country you will encounter after you leave school. What you have learned may help you find your way about at first; later on you will have to shift to yourself, locating goals and opportunities in the same fog that hampers us all as we move toward the future. 1,052 words

  19. Letter to a B Student 3.text1-W Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Letter to a B Student Robert Oliphant Your final grade for the course is B. A respectable grade. Far superior to the “Gentleman’s C” that served as the norm a couple of generations ago. But in those days A’s were rare: only two out of twenty-five, as I recall. Whatever our norm is, it has shifted upward, with the result that you are probably disappointed at not doing better. I’m certain that nothing I can say will remove that feeling of disappointment, particularly in a climate where grades determine eligibility for graduate school and special programs.

  20. Letter to a B Student 3.text2-W Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Disappointment. It’s the stuff bad dreams are made of: dreams of failure, inadequacy, loss of position and good repute. The essence of success is that there’s never enough of it to go round in a zero-sum game where one person’s winning must be offset by another’s losing, one person’s joy offset by another’s disappointment. You’ve grown up in a society where winning is not the most important thing — it’s the only thing. To lose, to fail, to gounder, to gobroke — these are deadly sins in a world where prosperity in the present is seen as a sure sign of salvation in the future. In a different society, your disappointment might be something you could shrug away. But not in ours. My purpose in writing you is to put your disappointment inperspective by considering exactly what your grade means and doesn’t mean. I do not propose to argue here that grades are unimportant. Rather, I hope to show you that your grade, taken at face value, is apt to be dangerously misleading, both to you and to others.

  21. Letter to a B Student 3.text3-W Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement As a symbol on your college transcript, your grade simply means that you have successfully completed a specific course of study, doing so at a certain level of proficiency. The level of your proficiency has been determined by your performance of rather conventional tasks: taking tests, writing papers and reports, and so forth. Your performance is generally assumed to correspond to the knowledge you have acquired and will retain. But this assumption, as we both know, is questionable; it may well be that you’ve actually gotten much more out of the course than your grade indicates — or less. Lacking more precise measurement tools, we must interpret your B as a rather fuzzy symbol at best, representing a questionable judgment of your mastery of the subject.

  22. Letter to a B Student 3.text4-W Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Your grade does not represent a judgment of your basic ability or of your character. Courage, kindness, wisdom, good humor — these are the important characteristics of our species. Unfortunately they are not part of our curriculum. But they are important: crucially so, because they are always in short supply. If you value these characteristics in yourself, you will be valued — and far more so than those whose identities are measured only by little marks on a piece of paper. Your B is a price tag on a garment that is quite separate from the living, breathing human being underneath. The student as performer; the student as human being. The distinction is one we should always keep in mind. I first learned it years ago when I got out of the service and went back to college. There were a lot of us then: older than the norm, in a hurry to get our degrees and move on, impatient with the tests and rituals of academic life. Not an easy group to handle.

  23. Letter to a B Student 3.text5-W Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement One instructor handled us very wisely, it seems to me. On Sunday evenings in particular, he would make a point of stopping in at a local bar frequented by many of the GI-Bill students. There he would sit and drink, joke, and swap stories with men in his class, men who had but recently put away their uniforms and identities: former platoon sergeants, bomber pilots, corporals, captains, lieutenants, commanders, majors — even a lieutenant colonel, as I recall. They enjoyed his company greatly, as he theirs. The next morning he would walk into class and give these same men a test. A hard test. A test on which he usually flunked about half of them.

  24. Letter to a B Student 3.text6-W Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Oddly enough, the men whom he flunked did not resent it. Nor did they resent him for shifting suddenly from a friendly gear to a coercive one. Rather, they loved him, worked harder and harder at his course as the semester moved along, and ended up with a good grasp of his subject — economics. The technique is still rather difficult for me to explain; but I believe it can be described as one in which a clear distinction was made between the student as classroom performer and the student as human being. A good distinction to make. A distinction that should put your B in perspective — and your disappointment.

  25. Letter to a B Student 3.text7-W Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Perspective. It is important to recognize that human beings, despite differences in class and educational labeling, are fundamentally hewn from the same material and knit together by common bonds of fear and joy, suffering and achievement. Warfare, sickness, disasters, public and private — these are the larger coordinates of life. To recognize them is to recognize that social labels are basically irrelevant and misleading. It is true that these labels are necessary in the functioning of a complex society as a way of letting us know who should be trusted to do what, with the result that we need to make distinctions on the basis of grades, degrees, rank, and responsibility. But these distinctions should never be taken seriously in human terms, either in the way we look at others or in the way we look at ourselves.

  26. Letter to a B Student 3.text2-S_...wining1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement ... winning is not the most important thing — it’s the only thing Paraphrase: Winning is of primary importance; nothing could be more important than winning. 胜利不是最重要的,而是唯一重要的。 Explanation: This is a special type of negation. The author is not negating the importance of winning; rather, with the sentence that follows the negative one, the author gives the utmost emphasis to the importance of winning.

  27. Letter to a B Student 3.text2-S_...wining2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement e.g. To improve your oral English, practicing is not the most important thing — it’s the only thing. e.g. Ours is a time of information explosion; to keep up with the times, updating our knowledge is not the most important thing — it’s the only thing.

  28. Letter to a B Student 3.text2-S_... To lose Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement To lose, to fail, to go under, to go broke — these are deadly sins in a world where prosperity in the present is seen as a sure sign of salvation in the future. Paraphrase: Being unsuccessful in one’s life and career and financially disadvantaged is regarded as shameful or even sinful because in this world people tend to think that only those who are successful now can be saved from evil in the future. 失利失败,倾家荡产是很可怕的过错,因为在当今世界,人们认为眼下的兴隆发达预示着将来必能从困境中脱身。

  29. Letter to a B Student 3.text4-S_when… Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement ... when I got out of the service ... Paraphrase: ... when I got out of the army ... ……当我退伍时…… Explanation: Usually the plural form “services” is used to refer to the three armed forces, i.e. the army, the navy, and the air force.

  30. Letter to a B Student 3.text5-S_men … Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement ... men who had but recently put away their uniforms and identities: former platoon sergeants, bomber pilots, corporals, captains, lieutenants, commanders, majors — even a lieutenant colonel ... 那些学生只是在不久以前脱下军装,变成普通人。他们曾经是下士、中士、轰炸机驾驶员、中尉、上尉、指挥官、少校或者中校…… Explanation: Here “men who had ... and identities” refers to former GIs, who, like the author himself, had taken off their army uniforms and changed their identities from servicemen to civilians. Many of these men had been officers of various ranks.

  31. Letter to a B Student 3.text6-S_shifting Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement ... shifting suddenly from a friendly gear to a coercive one . ……他突然从友善的样子变成严酷的模样儿。 Explanation: The word “gear” originally means a device in a vehicle which controls the rate at which the energy being used is converted into motion (排挡). While driving, a driver sometimes shifts or changes gear (换挡). In our sentence, the shifting of gear refers to the change in the instructor’s manner of dealing with his students. When drinking with the students in the pub, he was easy-going and friendly; but in the classroom, he became stern and severe.

  32. Letter to a B Student 3.text7-S_It is… Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement It is important to recognize that human beings, … Warfare, sickness, disasters, public and private — these are the larger coordinates of life. Paraphrase: It is important to see the fact that although they differ in their class status and educational background, human beings are essentially the same. First of all, they are, biologically speaking, constructed in the same way, and then they all share the feelings of fear and joy, and also the common experience of suffering and achieving. This commonality has bound them together. All of them will regard wars, diseases, and disasters, both private and public, as unfortunate big events in their lifetime. 尽管社会阶级和教育背景不同,但是人们都由相同的物质构成,被恐惧、快乐、痛苦、和成就这些人类共同的纽带联系在一起。承认这一点非常重要。

  33. Letter to a B Student 3.text1-W-norm1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement norm n. Explanation: • level of achievement most students are expected to reach; what is considered as standard. • 2) the usual or normal situation, way of doing something etc. e.g. terrorists who violate the norms of civilized society e.g. Joyce’s style of writing was a striking departure from the literary norm. e.g. Short term contracts are now the norm with some big companies.

  34. Letter to a B Student 3.text1-W-norm2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Practice: Translate the following sentences into English: 1)犯罪行为似乎是这一带的正常现象。 2)在社会中生活就要遵循社会行为准则。 Criminal behavior seems to be the norm in this neighborhood. You must adapt to the norms of the society you live in.

  35. Letter to a B Student 3.text1-W-shift1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement shift v. Explanation: • to move or change from one position or direction to another • 2) transfer something e.g. The teacher shifted the chairs around in the classroom. e.g. The tools shift around in the boot every time we turn a corner. e.g. The wind shifted from east to north. You’ll have to shift yourselves to another room. I want to clean in here. e.g. e.g. He shifted the load from his left to his right shoulder. e.g. The president is shifting the focus of the debate to foreign policy issues. e.g. This simply shifts the cost of medical insurance from employer to employee.

  36. Letter to a B Student 3.text1-W-shift2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Explanation: 3) change (gear) in a vehicle 4) move quickly e.g. Shift up when you reach 30 mph. e.g. Learn to shift gear at the right moment. e.g. You’ll have to shift if you want to get there by nine o’clock. Collocation: shift sth. (from A to B) e.g. She shifted her gaze from me to Bobby with a look of suspicion. e.g. Under these new arrangements, the emphasis has shifted from state provision to personal responsibility.

  37. Letter to a B Student 3.text1-W-shift3 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Derivation: shifty adj. shiftless adj. e.g. a shifty-looking person e.g. a shiftless individual who never works and constantly borrows from others Practice: Translate the following sentences into English: 1)观众在座位上不安地动来动去。 2)别想把责任推给别人,你得自己干这件事。 The audience shifted uneasily in their seats. Don’t try to shift the responsibility onto others: you must do the job yourself.

  38. Letter to a B Student 3.text1-W-eligibility1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement eligibility n. Explanation: the qualifications or abilities required for doing something Collocation: eligibility for sth. Derivation: eligible adj. e.g. eligible to join a club e.g. eligible for promotion

  39. Letter to a B Student 3.text1-W-eligihility2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Practice: Translate the following sentences into English: 1) 她的资历和经验决定她适合做这项工作。 2) 任何年满十八岁的公民都有选举权。 Her qualifications and experience confirm her eligibility for the job. Anyone over the age of 18 is eligible to vote.

  40. Letter to a B Student 3.text2-W-inadequacy1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement inadequacyn. Explanation: • being too low in quality or too small in amount • 2) fault or failing; weakness e.g. the inadequacy of local health care e.g. the inadequacies of the present voting system realize one’s personal inadequacy e.g. Derivation: inadequate adj. e.g. An inadequate supply of vitamin A can lead to blindness. e.g. The parking facilities are inadequate for such a busy shopping center. e.g. The teacher made us feel inadequate and stupid if we made mistakes.

  41. Letter to a B Student 3.text2-W-inadequacy2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Practice: Translate the following sentences into Chinese: 1) Unemployment can often cause feelings of inadequacy and low self-esteem. 2) I always feel inadequate when faced with a difficult problem. 失业常使人感到自信不足、自尊心受挫。 面对难题我总是觉得力不从心。

  42. Letter to a B Student 3.text2-W-repute1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement repute n. Explanation: reputation e.g. a man of good repute e.g. a hotel of some repute Derivation: reputed adj. reputedly adv. e.g. She is reputed to be extremely wealthy. e.g. The committee had reputedly spent over $3000 on “business entertainment”.

  43. Letter to a B Student 3.text2-W-repute2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement disrepute n. e.g. Since the scandal, the school has rather fallen into disrepute. e.g. The use of drugs is bringing the sport into disrepute. Practice: Translate the following sentences into English: 1) 他是个名不见经传的大学教师。 2) 安迪在他的家乡臭名昭著。 He has little repute as an academic. Andy is a man of bad repute in his hometown.

  44. Letter to a B Student 3.text2-W-offset1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement offset v. Explanation: to counterbalance or compensate for e.g. In 1992 the cost of the layoffs was offset by the savings on the payroll. e.g. He was able to offset his travel expenses against tax. e.g. Streaks of blond in his hair offset his deep tan. Collocation: be offset by

  45. Letter to a B Student 3.text2-W-offset2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Practice: Translate the following sentences into English: 1) 他提高了售价以补偿材料成本的增加。 2) 抵押贷款利率的提高,其中一部分可因免税额增加而相抵  消。 He put up his prices to offset the increased cost of materials. Higher mortgage rates are partly offset by increased tax allowances.

  46. Letter to a B Student 3.text2-W-go under1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement go under Explanation: to fail; to be overwhelmed e.g. The filling station went under because there were too many others on the street. e.g. His business went under because of competition from the large corporations. e.g. Poor Donaldson had no head for business, and it was not long before he went under.

  47. Letter to a B Student 3.text2-W-go under2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Practice: Translate the following sentences into English: 1) 生意若无起色,公司非垮不可。 2) 很多餐厅在第一年就倒闭了。 The firm will go under unless business improves. Many restaurants go under in the first year.

  48. Letter to a B Student 3.text2-W-go/be broke Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement go/be broke Explanation: to become penniless; to go bankrupt e.g. I was flat broke in a strange town with nowhere to turn for help. e.g. It is no use asking me for a loan of $5; I’m broke myself. e.g. The business kept losing money and finally went broke. Practice: • Translate the following sentences into Chinese: • A lot of small businesses went broke in the recession. • 2) The inventor went broke because nobody would buy his machine. 经济不景气,很多小公司都倒闭了。 由于没有人愿意买那个发明者的机器,他最终破产了。

  49. Letter to a B Student 3.text2-W-shrug … away/off Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement shrug … away/off Explanation: to treat something as unimportant e.g. She can shrug away her troubles and keep smiling. e.g. He had a way of shrugging away criticism as though it were beneath his notice. Practice: • Translate the following sentences into Chinese: • I asked her where Sam was, but she just shrugged her shoulders, i.e. to show she didn’t know or didn’t care. • 2) We can’t just shrug these objections off. 我问她萨姆在哪儿,她只是耸了耸肩(表示不知道或与自己无关)。 我们不能轻视这些反对意见。

  50. Letter to a B Student 3.text2-W-perspective1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement perspective n. Explanation: • 1) a way of regarding situations, facts, etc. • 2) a method of drawing a picture that makes objects look solid and shows distance and depth, or the effect this method produces in a picture e.g. a distorted perspective of the man’s true intentions e.g. That battle is of great significance when viewed in the perspective of the progress of the war. e.g. We must keep these minor details in perspective and not waste too much time on them. e.g. From a white male perspective, it’s hard to understand oppression. e.g. Children’s drawings often have no perspective. e.g. The background is all out of perspective.