Positive Behavior Intervention and Supportin theClassroom CCS Professional Development Institute 2013-2014
PBIS in the Classroom Why are we doing this?
Kent McIntosh • University of Oregon • APBS Conference, March 2013 Fertile Ground: Creating the Context for Sustainable Implementation of PBIS
Support for these projects: • IES: NCSER (R324A120278) • OSEP: TA Center on PBS (H326S03002) • Social Sciences and Humanities Council of Canada (SRG F09-05052) • Hampton Endowment Fund (J07-0038)
Thanks and Acknowledgments • Participants in these studies • State Networks • Jerry Bloom, Susan Barrett and PBIS Maryland • Cristy Clouse, Barbara Kelley and CalTAC • Eric Kloos, Ellen Nacik, Char Ryan and Minnesota DOE • Mike Lombardo, Rainbow Crane and Placer COE • Lori Lynass, Celeste Rossetto Dickey, Chris Borgmeier, Tricia Robles and NWPBIS • Mary Miller-Richter, Nanci Johnson and MO SW-PBS • JustynPoulos, Wisconsin PBIS • Heather Reynolds, NC DOE • Co-authors
Lessons learned for sustaining School-wide PBIS • Focus on bringing PBIS into the classroom • Consistency with SW systems • High rates of acknowledgment for prosocial behavior • Focus on quality differentiated instruction across academic domains • Student instruction at their level Research from our state
Objective Participants will create a classroom plan based on Positive Behavior Intervention and Support philosophies.
Today’s Agenda • PBIS Overview • Routines and Procedures • Defining Classroom Expectations • Teaching Expectations • Encouraging Positive Behavior • Collaborative Work and Next Steps
Participant Expectations Be Responsible Return promptly from breaks Be an active participant Use electronic devices appropriately Be Respectful Maintain cell phone etiquette Listen attentively to others Limit sidebars and stay on topic Be Kind Enter discussions with an open mind Respond appropriately to others’ ideas Honor confidentiality
Attention Signal Please make note of time limits and watch your clocks! • Trainer will raise his/her hand. • Finish your thought/comment. • Participants will raise a hand and wait quietly.
Positive Behavior Intervention and Support: Definition A systems approach for establishing the social culture and individualized behavioral supports needed for schools to be effective learning environments for all students - Rob Horner, Ph.D. Co-Director National Technical Assistance Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support
Guiding Principles • All students are valuable and deserve respect. • All students can be taught to demonstrate appropriate behavior. • Punishment does not work to change behavior. • School climate is a shared responsibility among administrators, teachers, staff, students and families.
Guiding Principles • School personnel must be willing to examine their own behavior as students are taught to change theirs. • Cultural differences exist and need to be understood. • Positive relationships between students and adults are key to student success.
Supporting Social Competence and Academic Achievement OUTCOMES Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Decision Making SYSTEMS DATA PRACTICES Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Supporting Student Behavior
5% CONTINUUM OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION AND SUPPORT FBA/BIP De-escalation 15% Social Skills Mentoring Check In Self Management Classroom Based Intervention 80% Defining & Teaching Expectations Routines & Procedures Reinforcement Systems Effective Consequences
Traditional Discipline vs. PBIS Traditional Discipline • Focuses on the student’s problem behavior • Goal is to stop undesirable behavior, through the use of punishment • Primarily reactive Positive Behavior Intervention and Support • Replaces undesired behavior with a new behavior or skill • PBIS alters environments, teaches appropriate skills, and rewards appropriate behavior • Primarily proactive
Pbis in the classroom Management
What is Effective Classroom Management? Classroom management refers to all of the things that an educator does to organize students, space, time, and materials, so that instruction in content and student learning can take place.
Classroom Management Plan • At the end of each section, you will be asked to apply learning to your own classroom management plan. • Use the classroom management plan template to guide you. • Your overall plan should include: • Routines and procedures • Classroom expectations • Methods for teaching expectations • Procedures for encouraging positive behavior • Procedures for responding to problem behavior
Pbis in the classroom Routines and Procedures
Routines and Procedures: Definition • Routines are a habitual performance of an established procedure. • Procedures are a series of steps followed in a regular definite order. Talk with your neighbor. Share one routine you completed today. What steps were involved? Pick one lucky spokesmanto share out on one routine.
Routines and Procedures: Physical Space • The physical environment can hinder or promote successful behavior. • Maximize positive behavior: • Arrange seats in a way that allows easy access to all students • Utilize seating arrangements that match the level of structure students need • Ensure areas with high traffic have ample room for students to give each other space • Include a quiet area for students to take a break when needed
Routines and Procedures: Schedule • A daily or class period schedule increases predictability and reduces transition time. • Schedules: • Meet student needs as much as possible (i.e. length of activity & student attention span) • Are flexible, but not loose • Posted in areas visible to entire room (add pictures as needed) • Have a balance of various types of instruction
Routines and Procedures: AttentionSignal • An attention signal is a visual or verbal cue used to gain the attention of students so that learning and teaching take place. • All teachers, regardless of student age, should use an attention signal. • Effective attention signals: • Used across all settings • Students can respond quickly • Taught and practiced regularly • Ideas: • Give me 5. • Hand up (must teach) • Auditory (think about field trip and outside) • Rhythmic clapping
Routines and Procedures: Attention Signal Process Attention signal practice: • Make sure students are attending before moving on. • Be willing to wait. • Reinforce students who attend immediately. • Provide specific verbal praise when students comply. • Be consistent. • Remain calm. • (For students who continue to be non-compliant after initial learning period, let them know they will owe you back the time it takes out of the lesson- “time owed”.Time owed: Student completes work or tasks missed due to misbehavior on their own time.)
Routines and Procedures: Opening Routines • The beginning of the day is an important time to have efficient routines. • Entrance routines set the tone for the entire class. • Students need to feel welcome and immediately start a productive task. Greet students daily- “good morning”, high five, thumbs up (Can use to prevent future problems)
Routines and Procedures: Opening Routines Opening classroom procedures to teach: • Entering class and getting started • Arriving after instruction has started • Handing in work • Obtaining needed materials • Returning after an absence No right or wrong way. Just need to have a plan & explicitly teach it.
Routines and Procedures: During Class Routines • Because content and instructional methods change, a variety of routines are needed throughout the day or class period. • Classroom procedures to teach: • Getting assignments and turning in work • Managing independent work times • Managing cooperative work times • Getting assistance • Transitioning Teach and practice until demonstrated without much prompting.
Routines and Procedures: Ending Routines • Ending class in a calm and predictable manner can facilitate a better start to the next day or class. • Teach students how to clean up, organize materials and prepare for the next transition. • Methods for giving and receiving feedback about the class should also be included. • Ideas: • Increase student monitoring by building in self-evaluation: thumbs up or down and reflect on improvements for tomorrow. • Exit ticket with three or fewer questions
Routines and Procedures: Summary • Routines and procedures should be taught and practiced with students. • Physical space and schedule can be manipulated to maximize positive behavior. • An attention signal is a useful tool for all teachers. • Have and teach specific routines for the beginning, middle and end of the day or class.
Activity: Classroom PBIS Plan • Select one key routine that you plan to teach your students. • Develop steps to teach that routine and complete Section 1 of the Classroom PBIS Plan. • Continue work on Section 1 of your Classroom PBIS Plan.
Pbis in the classroom Developing and Teaching Expectations
Classroom Expectations • In order for positive behavior to be demonstrated, there must be clear expectations. • Students need to know what is expected of them and how to meet those expectations. • Classroom expectations must be related to school-wide expectations, but can be modified to be specific to your class.
Developing Expectations • Expectations should be created with input from stakeholders. • Base expectations on common classroom problems. • State the expectations in the positive, using specific and observable terms. • Develop expectations for different types of instruction.
Teaching Expectations • Behavioral expectations must be overtly taught and practiced. Same as academic! • Establish methods for teaching expected behaviors that meet learning needs. • …Video, role play, visuals • Teach regularly throughout the year, especially when students… • transition in or out of school. • return from breaks. • demonstrate they have not mastered the expectations.
Teaching Expectations • Conceptual Level • Broad idea (respect, responsible, safe) • Start here: Focus on concept 1st • Skill Level • Specific to setting • Taught in setting (when possible) • Practice in the actual setting if possible. For example, teachers may need to take their students into the hallways to practice the expected behaviors.
Teaching Expectations: Lesson Components • Rationale: Rule for when to use the skill • Teach: Describe the skills needed to meet expectations • Model: Demonstrate the skills • Role play: Students practice the skills • Performance feedback: Give praise and correction
Teaching Expectations: Teach-Monitor-Feedback Loop Teach your expectations before the activity or transition begins. Monitor student behavior by circulating and visually scanning. Provide feedback during the activity and at the conclusion of the activity. Begin the cycle again for the next activity. 41
Developing and Teaching Expectations: Summary • Clearly define classroom expectations. • Utilize all lesson components when teaching expectations. • Teach expectations to mastery. • Incorporate behavioral instruction throughout your day.
Activity: Classroom PBIS Plan • Develop classroom expectations that are aligned with your school-wide expectations. • Continue work on Section 2 of your Classroom PBIS Plan.
Pbis in the classroom Encouraging Positive Behavior
Acknowledgement So what’s the big deal about all this acknowledgement anyway? They should already know how to do school anyway… right?
Poverty & Language Approximately one year (11-18 months) • Children in poverty—hear 250,000 words per year • Children in homes of professionals—hear 4 million words per year (Hart & Risley, 1995)
Poverty & Language Affirmative statements • Professional—30 per hour • Working class—15 per hour • Poverty—6 per hour (prohibition twice as often as affirmative feedback) (Hart & Risley, 1995)
Poverty & Language “To keep the confidence-building experiences of welfare children equal to those of working class children, the welfare children would need to be given 1,100 more instances of affirmative feedback per week…” (p.201). “It would take 26 hours per week of substituted experience for the average welfare child’s experience with affirmatives to equal that of the average working-class child” (p. 202). (Hart & Risley, 1995)
Encouraging Positive Behaviors • Expectations alone will not support demonstration of positive behavior. • Students must be encouraged to meet expectations. • Classroom systems for reinforcement need to be aligned with any school-wide system. • The strategies in this section will help ensure that adults will focus on positive behavior in a consistent and frequent manner. The Bottom Line: You get what you attend to.
Encouraging Positive Behaviors:Apply Pre-correction Strategies • Pre-corrects function as prompts for expected behavior. • Opportunities for practice are provided in close proximity to context. • Especially helpful when teacher anticipates behavior errors. • Only effective after behavior is taught and learned. Example “Remember before you leave class, collect your materials, put your papers in the bin, and walk quietly out the room.